Investigation of Dilated Cardiomyopathy Tendency by Echocardiography in Kangal Dogs

Abstract views: 202 / PDF downloads: 271

Authors

  • Görkem Toksoy
  • Sibel Yasa Duru

Keywords:

Dilated cardiomyopathy, tendency, Kangal, Dog

Abstract

Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is defined as a cardiac disease characterized by dilatation of the cardiac chamber, decreased myocardial contractility, and decreased left ventricular ejection fraction. In this study, we aimed to determine whether there is a tendency to age-related dilated cardiomyopathy in Kangal Dogs, a breed of Anatolia, echocardiographically. The experimental groups of the study consisted of a total of 20 dogs, 10 of which were 1-3 years old, young group (Group I) and the other 10 were 4-7 years old, middle-aged group (Group II), who had no clinical problems at rest. By echocardiographic examination, the end-diastolic thickness of interventricular septum, the end-systolic thickness of interventricular septum, left atrial diastolic diameter, aortic root diastolic inner diameter, the ratio of left atrium diameter to aortic diameter, left ventricular end-diastolic inner diameter, left ventricular end-systolic inner diameter end-systolic thickness of the posterior wall, the end-diastolic thickness of the posterior wall of the left ventricle, heart rate, left ventricular ejection fraction, left ventricular contraction force, stroke volume, cardiac output, end-diastolic volume and end-systolic volume parameters were measured. The data collected from the two groups were analysed using independent samples T-test. In conclusion, considering that the age of the Kangal dogs constituting the middle-aged group (G II) of the study was within the age limits specified in the studies (6-7 years), a myocardial defect indicating echocardiographic DCM was not detected. Thus, it was concluded that there is no tendency for DCM among the age groups included in the study. However, it can be said that echocardiographic evaluation of more coiled dogs in the given age group may give a more reliable result considering that the rate of DCM is 6% in different breed dogs.

References

Akgül A. 2005. Tıbbi Araştırmalarda İstatistiksel Analiz Teknikleri “SPSS Uygulamaları”. 3. Baskı, Emek Ofis Ltd Şti., Ankara.

Bayon A, Palacio JF, Montes AM, Panizo CG. 1994. M-mode echocardiography study in growing Spanish mastiffs. Journal of Small Animal Practice, 35: 473-479.

Bonagura JD, O’Grady MR, Herring DS. 1985. Echocardiography, Principles of Interpretation. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice, 15(6): 1177-1194.

Bonagura JD. 1994. Echocardiography. Journal of the

American Veterinary Medical Association, 204(4): 516-522.

Bonagura JD, Lehmkuhl. Cardiomyopathy. In: Birchard SJ, Sherding RG (eds). 2000. Saunders Manual of Small Animal Practice. 2nd ed, WB Saunders Company, USA, pp 530-555.

Boon JA. 1998. Manual of Veterinary Echocardiography. Williams and Wilkins Company, p. 1-260.

Colakoglu EC, Sahal M, 2015. Comparison of in-hospital and 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiography in dogs with heart disease. Animal Health Prod. and Hyg., 4(2): 402 – 407.

Colakoglu EC, Sevim K, Kalınbacak A, Kaya U. 2022. Retrospective evaluation of cardiopulmonary diseases in cats and dogs: 570 cases. Kocatepe Vet J., 15(2): 182-188.

Dukes-McEwan J, Borgarelli M, Tidholm A, Vollmar AC, Haggström J. 2003. Proposed guidelines for the diagnosis of canine idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Journal of Veterinary Cardiology, 5(2): 7-19.

Ettinger SJ. 1991. Ordering diagnostic test in cardiovascular disease. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice, 21(5): 1081-1102.

Ettiger SJ, Feldman EC. 1995. Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine: Diseases of the Dog and Cat. 4th Ed., pp 996-1005.

Gooding JJ, Robinson WF, Mews GC. 1986. Echocardiographic characterization of dilatation cardiomyopathy in the English cocker spaniel. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 47(9): 1978-1983.

Gökçe G. 2014. Miyokardiyal hastalıklar. In: Veteriner Kardiyoloji. Medipres Matbaacılık Yayıncılık Ltd. Şti., Kars. pp.197-202.

Hoggastrom J, Hamlin RL, Hansson K, Kvart C. 1996. Heart rate variability in relation to severity of mitral regurgitation in Cavalier King Charles spaniels. Journal of Small Animal Practice. 37: 69-75.

Jeyaraja K, Arun A, Hamsa Yamini S, Sesh PSL, Nabi AP. 2015. Diagnostic evaluation of dilated cardiomyopathy in labrador retrievers. International Journal of Advanced Research, 3(12): 628-655.

Kayar A. 2001. Erişkin Kangal ırkı köpeklerde M-mod ve iki boyutlu (2-D) ekokardiyografi teknikleri ile kardiyak referans parametrelerinin saptanması. İstanbul Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü İç Hastalıkları Anabilim Dalı Doktora Tezi, İstanbul.

Kittenson MD, Eyster GE, Knowlen GG, Olivier NB, Anderson LK. 1984. Myocardial function in small dogs with chronic mitral regurgitation and sever congestive heart failure. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 184(4): 455-459.

Koch J, Pedersen HD, Jensen AL, Flagstad A. 1996. M-mode echocardigraphic diagnosis of dilated cardiomyopathy in giant breed dogs. Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series, 43: 297-304.

Lombard CW. 1984. Normal values of the canine M-mode echocardiogram. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 45(10): 2015-2018.

Lombard CW, Spencer CP. 1985. Correlation of radiographic, echocardiographic, and electrocardiographic signs of left heart enlargement in dog with mitral regurgitation. Veterinary Radiology, 26(3): 89-97.

Mansilla WD, Marinangeli CPF, Ekenstedt KJ, Larsen JA, Aldrich G, Columbus DA, Weber L, Abood SK, Kürekçi AK. 2019. Special topic: The association between pulse ingredients and canine dilated cardiomyopathy: addressing the knowledge gaps befor establishing causatin. The Journal of Animal Science, 97(3): 983-997.

Matli B, Rao VV, Rani NL, Rao GS, Subramanyam K V. 2021. Prognostic findings in dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy. The Pharma Innovation Journal 2021; SP-10(5): 684-687.

O’Grady MR, O’Sullivan ML. 2004. Dilated cardiomyopathy: An update. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice. 34: 1187-1207.

O’Grady MR, Minors SL, O’Sullivan ML, Horne R. 2008. Effect of pimobendan on case fatality rate in Doberman Pinschers with congestive heart failure caused by dilated cardiomyopathy. The Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 22: 897–904

Onmaz AC, Kibar M, Güneş V, Atasever A, Atalan G. 2011. Dilate kardiyomiyopatili iki adet köpekte klinik, radyolojik, elektrokardiyografik ve ekokardiyografik bulgular. Journal of Health Sciences, 20(3): 247-255.

Osterziel KJ, Haβfeld S, Geier C, Perrot A. 2005. Familial dilated cardiomyopathy. Herz, 30: 529-534.

Sahn DJ, DeMaria A, Kissio J, Weyman A. 1978. Recommandations regarding quantitation in M-mode echocardiography: Result of a survey of echocardiographic measurements. Cir, 58: 1072-1083.

Stephenson HM, Fonfara S, Lopez-Alvarez J, Cripps P, Dukes-McEwan J. 2012. Screening for dilated cardiomyopathy in Great Danes in the United Kingdom. The Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 26: 1140-1147.

Tidholm A, Jonsson L. 1996. A retrospective study of caninedilated cardiomyopathy. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association, 33: 544-550.

Tidholm A, Svensson H, Sylven C. 1997. Survival and prognostic factors in 189 dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association, 33: 364-368.

Turgut K. 2017. Dilate Kardiyomiyopatiler. In: Klinik Kedi ve Köpek Kardiyolojisi. Nobel Tıp Kitabevleri Tic. Ltd. Şti. 2017, İstanbul, pp.423-436.

Vollmar AC. 1999. Echocardiographic measurements in the Irish Wolfhound: Reference values for the breed. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association, 271-277.

Wess G, Maurer J, Simak J, Hartmann K. 2010. Use of Simpson’s Method of disc to detect early ecocardiographic changes in Doberman Pinschers with dilated cardiomyopathy. The Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 24: 1069-1076.

Wess G, 2022. Screening for dilated cardiomyopathy in dogs. Journal of Veterinary Cardiology, 40: 51-68.

Wess G, Schulze A, Butz V, Simak J, Killich M, Keller LJM, Hartmann K. (2010). Prevalence of dilated cardiomyopathy in Doberman Pinschers in various age groups. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 24(3): 533-538.

Wess G, Domenech O, Dukes-McEwan J, Haggstrom J, Gordon S. 2017. European Society of Veterinary Cardiology screening guidelines for dilated cardiomyopathy in Doberman Pinschers. Journal of Veterinary Cardiology, 19: 405-415.

Wiersma AC, Stabej P, Leegwater PAJ, Van Oost BA, Ollier WE, Dukes-McEwan. 2008. Evaluation of 15 candidate genes for dilated cardiomyopathy in the Newfoundland Dog. Journal of Heredity, 99(1): 73-80.

Downloads

Published

2023-03-25

How to Cite

Toksoy, G., & Yasa Duru, S. (2023). Investigation of Dilated Cardiomyopathy Tendency by Echocardiography in Kangal Dogs. International Journal of Veterinary and Animal Research (IJVAR), 6(1), 08–13. Retrieved from https://ijvar.org/index.php/ijvar/article/view/531

Issue

Section

Research Articles