Investigation of Vancomycin Resistance and Some Virulence Factors in Enterococci Strains Isolated from DogsAbstract views: 31 / PDF downloads: 14
Keywords:Antimicrobial susceptibility, dog, E. faecalis, E. faecium, vancomycin, virulence gene
The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Enteroccoccus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from dog, as well as the phenotypic and genotypic characterization of vancomycin resistance and some virulence genes of the isolates. A total of 197 samples were analyzed, including 114 urine, 63 rectal swab and 20 vaginal swab samples. Enteroccocus spp. were isolated from 83 (42.1%) of the samples. By PCR test with species-specific primers, 42 (50.6%) isolates were identified as E. faecalis (95.2%) and E. faecium (4.8%). The highest resistance was found to erythromycin (16.66%) and tetracycline (11.9%) whereas vancomycin resistance was low (4.76%) by disc diffusion method. GelE (47.6%) and asa1 (38.1%) genes associated with the virulence were detected in the isolates, while all isolates were negative for cylA gene. As a result, E. faecalis from canine samples was isolated at higher rate than that of E. faecium, and the resistance of the isolates to β-lactam antibiotics (ampicillin, penicillin, imipenem, and vancomycin) as well as multiple antibiotic resistance was low. The gelE gene was detected in more isolates than the asa1 gene, and all isolates were negative for cylA gene.
Aarestrup FM, Agersoa Y, Gerner-Smidt P, Madsen M, Jensena LB. 2000. Comparison of antimicrobial resistance phenotypes and resistance genes in Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium from humans in the community, broilers, and pigs in Denmark. Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious disease, 37: 127-137.
Arias CA, Murray BE. 2012. The rise of the Enterococcus: beyond vancomycin resistance. Nature Reviews Microbiology, 10: 266-278.
Banerjee T, Anupurba S. 2016. Risk factors associated with fluoroquinolone-resistant enterococcal urinary tract infections in a tertiary care university hospital in North India. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 144: 604-610.
Ben Said L, Dziri R, Sassi N, Lozano C, Ben Slama K, Ouzari I, Torres C, Klibi N. 2017. Species distribution, antibiotic resistance and virulence traits in canine and feline enterococci in Tunisia. Acta Veterinaria Hungarica, 65(2): 173-184.
Bondi M, Iseppi R, Messi P, Anacarso I, Sabia C, Condò C, De Niederhausern S. 2015. Antimicrobial resistance and virulence traits in Enterococcus strains isolated from dogs and cats. New Microbiologica, 38: 369-378.
Brinkwirth S, Ayobami O, Eckmanns T, Markwart R. 2021. Hospital-acquired infections caused by enterococci: a systematic review and meta-analysis, WHO European Region, 1 January 2010 to 4 February 2020. Euro surveillance, 26(45).
Chow JW. 2000. Aminoglycoside resistance in Enterococci. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 31: 586-589.
CLSI. 2018. Performance standards for antimicrobial disk and dilution susceptibility test for bacteria isolated from animals. CLSI supplement VETO8. 4th ed. Wayne, Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute.
Comerlato CB, Carvalho de Resende MC, Caierão J, Alves d’Azevedo P. 2013. Presence of virulence factors in Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium susceptible and resistant to vancomycin. Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, 108(5): 590-595.
Cox CR, Coburn PS, Gilmore MS. 2005. Enterococcal cytolysin: a novel two component peptide system that serves as a bacterial defense against eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Current Protein and Peptide Science, 6: 77-84.
Damborg P, Sørensen AH, Guardabassi L. 2008. Monitoring of antimicrobial resistance in healthy dogs: First report of canine ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus faecium clonal complex 17. Veterinary Microbiology, 132: 190-196.
EUCAST. 2019. Clinical breakpoint tables v. 9.0, valid from 2019-01-01.
Feßler AT, Scholtzek AD, Schug AR, Kohn B, Weingart C, Hanke D, Schink A, Bethe A, Lübke-Becker A, Schwarz S. 2022. Antimicrobial and biocide resistance among canine and feline Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from diagnostic submissions. Antibiotics, 11(2): 152.
Gawryszewska I, Zabicka D, Bojarska K, Malinowska K, Hryniewicz W, Sadowy E. 2016. Invasive enterococcal infections in Poland: the current epidemiological situation. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases, 35: 847-856.
Gulhan T, Boynukara B, Ciftci A, Sogut MU, Findik A. 2015. Characterization of Enterococcus faecalis isolates originating from different sources for their virulence factors and genes, antibiotic resistance patterns, genotypes and biofilm production. Iranian Journal of Veterinary Research, 16(3): 261-266.
Handwerger S, Perlman DC, Altarac D, McAulife V. 1992. Concomitant high-level vancomycin and penicillin resistance in clinical isolates of Enterococci. Clinical ınfectious diseases, 14: 655-661.
Iseppi R, Messi P, Anacarso I, Bondi M, Sabia C, Condò C, Niederhausern, S. 2015. Antimicrobial resistance and virulence traits in Enterococcus strains isolated from dogs and cats. New Microbiologica, 38: 369-378.
Jackson CR, Fedorka Cray PJ, Davis JA, Barrett JB, Frye JG. 2009. Prevalence, species distribution and antimicrobial resistance of enterococci isolated from dogs and cats in the United States. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 107(4): 1269-1278.
Jackson CR, Fedorka-Cray PJ, Barret JB. 2004. Use of genus and species specific multiplex PCR for identification of Enterococci. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 42(8): 3558-3565.
Kiman Bang, Jae-Uk An, Woohyun Kim, Hee-Jin Dong, Junhyung Kim, Seongbeom Cho. 2017. Antibiotic resistance patterns and genetic relatedness of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolated from military working dogs in Korea. Journal of Veterinary Science, 18(2): 229-236.
Kiruthiga A, Padmavathy K, Shabana P, Naveenkumar V, Gnanadesikan S, Malaiyan J. 2020. Improved detection of esp, hyl, asa1, gelE, cylA virulence genes among clinical isolates of Enterococci. BMC Research Notes, 13(1): 170.
Kubašová I, Strompfová V, Lauková A. 2017. Safety assessment of commensal enterococci from dogs. Folia Microbiologica, 62: 491-498.
Li W, Li J, Wei Q, Hu Q, Lin X, Chen M, Ye R, Lv H. 2015. Characterization of aminoglycoside resistance and virulence genes among Enterococcus spp. isolated from a hospital in China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 12(3): 3014-3025.
Lopes Mde F, Simões AP, Tenreiro R, Marques JJ, Crespo MT. 2006. Activity and expression of a virulence factor, gelatinase, in dairy enterococci. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 112: 208-214.
Murray BE. 1990. The life and times of the Enterococcus. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 3: 46-65.
Olsen RH, Schønheyder HC, Christensen H, Bisgaard M. 2012. Enterococcus faecalis of human and poultry origin share virulence genes supporting the zoonotic potential of E. faecalis. Zoonoses and Public Health, 2059: 256-263.
Papini R, Ebani VV, Cerri D, Guidi G. 2006. Survey on bacterial isolates from dogs with urinary tract infections and their in vitro sensitivity. Revue de Medecine Veterinaire, 157(1): 35-45.
Pillay S, Zishiri OT, Adeleke MA. 2018. Prevalence of virulence genes in Enterococcus species isolated from companion animals and livestock. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, 85(1): a1583.
Quinn PJ, Markey BK, Leonard FC, FlizPatrick ES, Fanning S, Hartigan PJ. 2011. Veterinary microbiology and microbial di¬sease. 2nd ed. Oxford, pp. 38-91.
Saha B, Singh AK, Ghosh A, Bal M. 2008. Identification and characterization of a vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from Kolkata (South Asia). Journal of Medical Microbiology, 57: 72-79.
Shankar N, Coburn P, Chris Pillar C, Haas W, Gilmor M. 2004. Enterococcal cytolysin: activities and association with other virulence traits in a pathogenicity island. International Journal of Medical Microbiology, 293(7-8): 609-618.
Silva N, Igrejas G, Rodrigues P, Rodrigues T, Gonçalves A, Felgar AC, Poeta P. 2011. Molecular characterization of vancomycin-resistant enterococci and extended-spectrum β-lactamase-containing Escherichia coli isolates in wild birds from the Azores Archipelago. Avian Pathology, 40(5): 473-479.
Stepien-Pysniak Dagmara, Bertelloni F, Dec M, Cagnoli G, Pietras-Ozga D, Urban-Chmiel R, Ebani VV. 2021. Characterization and comparison of Enterococcus spp. isolates from feces of healthy dogs and urine of dogs with utis. Animals, 11: 2845.
Sweileh WM. 2021. Global research publications on irrational use of antimicrobials: call for more research to contain antimicrobial resistance. Globalization and Health, 17: 94.
Torres C, Alonso CA, Ruiz-Ripa L, León-Sampedro R, del Campo R, Coque TM. 2018. Antimicrobial resistance in Enterococcus spp. of animal origin. Antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from livestock and companion animals, 6: 185-227.
Troscianczyk A, Nowakiewicz A, Gnat S, Łagowski D, Osinska M. 2021. Are dogs and cats a reservoir of resistant and virulent Enterococcus faecalis strains and a potential threat to public health? Journal of Applied Microbiology, 131; 2061-2071.
Türkyılmaz S, Erdem V, Bozdoğan B. 2010. Investigation of antimicrobial susceptibility for enterococci isolated from cats and dogs and the determination of resistance genes by polymerase chain reaction. Turkish Journal of Veterinay and Animal Science, 34(1): 61-68.
Van den Bunt G, Top J, Hordijk J, de Greeff SC, Mughini-Gras L, Corander J, van Pelt W, Bonten MJM, Fluit AC, Willems RJL. 2018. Intestinal carriage of ampicillin and vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium in humans, dogs and cats in the Netherlands. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 73: 607-614.
Vankerckhoven V, Van Autgaerden T, Vael C, Lammens C, Chapelle S, Rossi R, Jabes D, Goossens H. 2004. Development of a multiplex PCR for the detection of asa1, gelE, cylA, esp, and hyl genes in enterococci and survey for virulence determinants among European hospital isolates of Enterococcus faecium. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 42: 4473-4479.
Vu J, Carvalho J. 2011. Enterococcus: review of its physiology, pathogenesis, diseases and the challenges it poses for clinical microbiology. Frontiers Biology, 6: 357-366.
Wijesekara PNK, Kumbukgolla WW, Jayaweera JAAS, Rawat D. 2017. Review on usage of vancomycin in livestock and humans: Maintaining its efficacy, prevention of resistance and alternative therapy. Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 4: 6.
Wong C, Epstein SE, Westropp JL. 2015. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in urinary tract infections in dogs (2010–2013). Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 29: 1045-1052.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Veterinary and Animal Research (IJVAR)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.