International Journal of Veterinary and Animal Research (IJVAR) <p>International Journal of Veterinary and Animal Research (IJVAR) accepts original research, reviews, clinical trials, case reports and correspondence. <strong>***As of January 2019, manuscripts written only in English has been processed for evaluation and publication.***</strong></p> <ul> <li class="show">​Animal feed and nutrition</li> <li class="show">Anatomy</li> <li class="show">Animal Behavior</li> <li class="show">Animal biotechnology</li> <li class="show">Animal breeding</li> <li class="show">Animal Diseases</li> <li class="show">Animal Feed</li> <li class="show">Animal husbandry</li> <li class="show">Animal nutrition</li> <li class="show">Animal Nutrition&nbsp; and Welfare</li> <li class="show">Animal parasitology</li> <li class="show">Animal Immunology</li> <li class="show">Animal physiology</li> <li class="show">Animal Reproduction</li> <li class="show">Animal Vaccine</li> <li class="show">Animal Viruses</li> <li class="show">Biological science</li> <li class="show">Diseases Companion and Wild Animals</li> <li class="show">Equine​</li> <li class="show">Ethology</li> <li class="show">Fisheries</li> <li class="show">Food Safety</li> <li class="show">Infectious diseases</li> <li class="show">Marine Science</li> <li class="show">Pathology</li> <li class="show">Pharmacological medicine</li> <li class="show">Transgenic animal production</li> <li class="show">Veterinary Clinical Research</li> <li class="show">Veterinary medicine</li> <li class="show">Veterinary Parasitology</li> <li class="show">Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology</li> <li class="show">Veterinary science</li> <li class="show">Veterinary Technician</li> <li class="show">Zoonotic Disease</li> <li class="show">Zootechny</li> </ul> Anatolia Science Academy en-US International Journal of Veterinary and Animal Research (IJVAR) 2651-3609 Social Network Analysis of Giardiasis Positive Calves to those of Healthy One <p>In the present multidisciplinary study, the researchers on a field trial performed a Social Network approach and a group of 9 calves (3 males/6 females) aged 10 to 16 weeks. A 24 hours digital camera was used for location registration (X-Y position) and interactions on each calf, both individually and collectively. Based on the simple methodology nearest neighbor matrix positive and negative associations were analyzed. The field study lasted 4 weeks and the maximum interaction day was chosen, when individual calf activity was high. To those of 9 calves solely no 2 was infected with giardiasis on the first week, whereas calves with no:2, 7, and 8 were also infected on the second week. No: 4 and 6 were also infected with a total of 5 calves on the third week. This was followed by the final 6 calves in total infected. During the observation period, both by investigators and camera records, infected calf 2 was in close contact with no: 8 (at morning observation) and a slight degree of contact with no: 3 and 4 which were detected with giardiasis on the third and fourt weeks, respectively. Due to close contact with no: 8, infection was determined on the second week, earlier than others (except no: 7). Calves with no: 1 and 5 were never infected nor determined by PCR, fecal smear, or rapid diagnostic test kits throughout the study. In conclusion, the present authors suggested that social networking might be an important predisposing factor for giardiasis infection among calves.</p> Deniz Alıç Ural Kerem Ural Songul Erdogan Adnan Ayan Hasan Erdoğan Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Veterinary and Animal Research (IJVAR) 2022-12-20 2022-12-20 5 3 113 116 Seasonal Changes in Plasma Testosterone and Biochemical Parameters of Male Donkey (Equus asinus) in Northern Algeria <p>This present study was aimed to determine the changes of plasma testosterone in North Algerian donkeys, the correlation coefficients between T concentrations and biochemical parameters were estimated. Blood samples were withdrawn in the morning from the jugular vein into a tube containing EDTA. A total of 24 mature healthy donkeys were selected randomly under condition of free stabling period. T concentrations in male donkeys were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. AST, ALT and ALP concentration were measured according to the manufacturer recommendation. As regards the concentration of Ch and Tg, the assay was carried out using the automatic biochemical analyzer. The results indicated that T concentration values were significantly (P&lt;0.05) higher in winter and autumn (2.468±0.66 ng/ml and 2.785±0.49 ng/ml, respectively) seasons than in spring and summer (0.95±0.343 ng/ml and 0.745±0.236 ng/ml, respectively) seasons. Likewise, Ch and Tg values were significantly (P&lt;0.05) higher in winter and autumn seasons than in spring and summer seasons. Also, it is also noteworthy that ALT values were significantly (P&lt;0.05) higher in winter and autumn seasons than in spring and summer seasons. Whereas, AST values were significantly (P&lt;0.05) lower in summer than in winter, autumn and spring seasons. As regards ALP, values mean were practically similar in all seasons. Our finding suggests that the sexual activity probably occurs during winter and autumn in local donkeys of Northern Algeria. In addition, our results of Ch and Tg levels are correlated with season, which may be a good indication of the reproductive performance in donkeys.</p> Sofiane Aissanou Omar Besseboua Mokhtar Benhanifia Abdelhanine Ayad Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Veterinary and Animal Research (IJVAR) 2022-12-20 2022-12-20 5 3 117 122 Evaluation of Rumination Behavior in Cows Before and After Surgical Correction of Left Displaced Abomasum <p>The aim of this study was to investigate the rumination behavior of cattle in the diagnosis of left displaced abomasum (LDA) and in the surgical correction process. In 6 cows diagnosed with LDA, surgical abomasopexy was performed via left-flank laparotomy. The cow monitoring system attached to the neck of each animal was used to monitor the rumination times. Rumination data were evaluated over a 35-day period covering the healthy period, diagnosis and treatment of LDA. In the healthy period (control group), the mean rumination time of the animals was determined as 508.74±8.52 mins. In the preoperative period, the mean rumination time was determined as 335.57±16.29 mins (-14 and -8 days) and 234.48±13.83 mins (-7 and -1 days) and a statistically significant decrease was determined compared to the healthy period (p&lt;0.001). In the first postoperative week, the rumination time showed a significant increase (393.57±26.9 mins) and in the second postoperative week, the results were similar to those of the healthy period (501.21±17.29 mins). This is the long-term study to have evaluated the change in preoperative and postoperative (35-day period) rumination in cattle diagnosed with LDA. The results demonstrate that rumination behavior is an important marker in the early diagnosis and follow-up of the postoperative prognosis of diseases causing economic loss, such as abomasum displacement.</p> Büşra Kibar Kurt Murat Sarıerler Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Veterinary and Animal Research (IJVAR) 2022-12-20 2022-12-20 5 3 123 128 Effects of Intracameral Injection of Phenylephrine - Cyclopentolate and Tropicamide-Lidocaine Hydrochloride Combinations on Ophthalmologic and Cardiovascular Parameters in Healthy Cats <p>In this study, it is aimed to investigate the effects of intracameral mydriatic combinations on the pupil dilation (PD), intraocular pressure (IOP), heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP). In this study 35 animals were divided into 5 groups. The first group (MSic) was phenylephrine hydrochloride (Mydfrin) and cyclopentolate hydrochloride (Sikloplejin), the second group (TLic) was tropicamide (Tropamid) and 2% lidocaine, the third group (BSS) was balanced salt solution. Cats were anesthetized, and all solutions were injected intracamerally. The fourth group (MSt) was phenylephrine hydrochloride (Mydfdrin) and cyclopentolate hydrochloride (Sikloplejin) and the fifth group (TLt) tropicamide (Tropamid) and 2% lidocaine were given by topically. During this research, the fastest onset of the mydriasis was numerically formed by first group. All intracameral groups were seen having longer duration of mydriasis compared to topical groups. Intraocular pressure decreased after anterior camera paracentesis in all intracameral procedures. In our study, time dependent changes of heart rate were found to be statistically significant in all groups. Our research observed that first and second group successfully created enough mydriasis (&gt;10mm). In terms of pupil diameter, it has been proven that first and second group are usable alternatives administration, and no side effects on intraocular pressure, heart rate or mean arterial pressure.</p> Osman Bulut Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Veterinary and Animal Research (IJVAR) 2022-12-20 2022-12-20 5 3 129 133 Endoscopic Examination of the Obstructive Upper Respiratory Diseases <p>Obstructive upper respiratory tract diseases are an important cause of poor performance in racehorses. Diagnosis of these diseases can be made easily by endoscopic examination. The aim of this study is to emphasize the frequently encountered obstructive respiratory tract diseases in the endoscopic examination of the upper respiratory tract in thoroughbred Arabian and British racehorses and the importance of endoscopic examination in the diagnosis of these diseases. The study material consisted of 72 horses (37 Arabian, 35 British horses) between the ages of 2-7 who had no respiratory complaints at rest, but had low racing and training performance. No pathology was detected in 32 (44.44%) of 72 horses who underwent clinical and endoscopic examination. it was detected that 19 (47.5%) palatal instability, 10 (25%) dorsal displacement of the soft palate (DDSP), 8 (20%) pharyngeal lymphoid hyperplasia, 2 (5%) laryngeal hemiplegia, 1 (2.5%) subepiglottic cyst of the remaining horses. As a result, it should be considered that there may be obstructive respiratory tract problems in horses that have a very good general health status at rest and show low racing and training performance. In addition, clinical examination in these horses should be supported by an upper respiratory tract endoscopic examination.</p> Emine Çatalkaya Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Veterinary and Animal Research (IJVAR) 2022-12-20 2022-12-20 5 3 134 138 Investigation of Physical Properties and Mineral Contents of Drinking Water in Some Villages of Van and Mardin Provinces <p>This study was carried out in order to examine a total of 40 drinking water samples taken from 20 locations selected from Mardin and Van provinces in terms of physical properties, heavy metal and mineral contents and to evaluate the quality of drinking water in accordance with the results obtained. Among the ion and mineral analyses of the samples, arsenic, copper, boron, cadmium, cobalt, manganese, nickel, lead, selenium and zinc analyses were made with Inductively Coupled Plasma and Mass Spectrometer, and magnesium analyses were made with Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometer. Fluoride, chloride, nitrite, nitrate, bromide, sulfate and phosphate analyses were also performed by Dionex ion chromatography. Conductivity, pH, ORP, TDS and minimum salt analyses were performed with the Myron L device. As a result of the study, the difference between the fluoride, chloride, nitrite, nitrate, bromide, boron, cadmium, cobalt, zinc, conductivity, TDS, ORP and temperature values of the water samples of the two provinces was found to be significant. In addition, drinking water containing heavy metals was found to be above the limit values set by the Regulation on Water Intended for Human Consumption, nickel was detected in water samples taken from Van, and phosphate was not detected in samples taken from Mardin. The remarkable issues in water samples taken from 40 different locations in two provinces are presented in articles and it has been emphasized that it is important for the people living in this region to present the detected defects to local governments, environmental and public health units and to eliminate the defects.</p> Merve Gizem Baraj Nihat Mert Handan Mert Nizamettin Günbatar Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Veterinary and Animal Research (IJVAR) 2022-12-20 2022-12-20 5 3 139 145 Investigation of the Bioactivity of Hesperidin in an In Vivo Model of Staphylococcus Aureus -Induced Osteomyelitis <p>Osteomyelitis is a severe bone disease that is difficult to treat and causes serious socioeconomic problems. This study aimed to examine the bioactivity of hesperidin in an in vivo <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>-induced osteomyelitis model. Total of 28 male Wistar Albino rats were randomly divided into 4 equal groups (n=7). Groups were designated as Group 1: Control group, Group 2: Sham group, Group 3: Osteomyelitis group, and Group 4: Treatment group (Hesperidin+Osteomyelitis). Unilateral tibial osteomyelitis was induced by administering arachidonic acid and 1×10<sup>6 </sup>CFU<sup>-1 </sup>bacterial suspension through a hole drilled from the tibial crest. The rats in the treatment group were given hesperidin once a day by oral gavage for 28 days. At the end of the treatment, the effectiveness of the treatment was evaluated radiographically, biochemically, and histopathologically. The mean scores of intraosseous acute inflammation, intraosseous chronic inflammation, periosteal inflammation, and bone necrosis were evaluated histopathologically. The score was 0 in the control group, 0-2 in the sham group, 9-14 in the osteomyelitis group, and 2-6 in the treatment group. The median values of IAI, ICI, PI, BN, and total histopathological scores of the treatment group were significantly lower than the osteomyelitis group. Biochemically, oxidative stress increased significantly in the osteomyelitis model, however, it significantly decreased in the group treated with hesperidin. Nrf-2 translation levels increased by 0.2% in the sham group compared to the control group and decreased by 26% in the osteomyelitis group but increased by 42% in the treatment group compared to the osteomyelitis group. Compared to the control group, NF-kB translation levels increased by 6% and 21% in the sham and osteomyelitis groups, respectively. However, this value decreased by 9% in the treatment group compared to the osteomyelitis group. Radiographically, the combined score reduced by 65% in the treatment group in comparison to the osteomyelitis group. In conclusion, hesperidin showed anti-inflammatory activity by suppressing NF-kB and antioxidant activity by increasing Nrf-2, both of which play a role in inflammatory pathways. In light of all these findings, it can be said that hesperidin can be used as a potential therapeutic or an agent that can contribute to the treatment of osteomyelitis.</p> Halil İsmail Önal Ziya Yurtal Muhammed Enes Altuğ Altuğ Küçükgül İlke Evrim Seçinti Özkan Aslantaş Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Veterinary and Animal Research (IJVAR) 2022-12-20 2022-12-20 5 3 146 153 Evaluation of Normal Tear Volume and Intraocular Pressure in Saanen Goats at Different Periods <p>This study was aimed to determine whether the reference values affected by different times of the day and season in Saanen Goats. One hundred twenty-two goats were included to this study and, tear secretion (TS) and intraocular pressure (IOP) were measured in three different time periods as morning, noon and evening on the same day in each seasonal group. Temperature and humidity values were recorded during all measurements. There was no difference between the right and left eyes in terms of IOP and TS (p&gt;0.05). While mean TS value was significantly increased in the winter group (12.23±0.28 mm/min) compared with the spring (9.9±0.18 mm/min) and summer (9.14±0.19 mm/min) groups (p&lt;0.001), mean IOP was significantly decreased in the winter group (14.05±0.28 mmHg) compared with the spring (17.64±0.36 mmHg) and summer (17.32±0.43 mmHg) groups (p&lt;0.001). While mean TS value was significantly increased at noon (10.08±0.28 mm/min) compared with morning (10.99±0.24 mm/min) (p&lt;0.001), mean IOP was significantly decreased in the morning (14.95±0.31 mmHg) compared to the afternoon (17.63±0.35 mmHg) and evening (16.54±0.42 mmHg) (p&lt;0.001). In conclusion, TS and IOP values in Saanen goats are affected by different times of the day and season, and it will contribute to the literature by determining the values that can be taken as reference for these different daytime and seasonal profile of the IOP and TS in Saanen Goat.</p> Aylin Orhan Zeynep Bozkan Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Veterinary and Animal Research (IJVAR) 2022-12-20 2022-12-20 5 3 154 158 Zonulin as a Noninvasive Selected Biomarker of Gut Barrier Function Identify and Debug Calves Suffering from Diarrhea <p>Zonulin elucidated as a thoroughly known protein, is capable of modulating the gut integrity of intercellular connections. Intestinal permeability and its modulation by zonulin have been well-defined. Zonulin levels could increase in response to several stimuli, i.e. infection/gluten ingestion. Even if the latter occurs, zonulin signals into the body for elevating the permeability of the gut lining, permitting larger molecules to pass through. All aforementioned conditions initiate inflammation. In the present prospective field study, the aim was to determine the specificity of zonulin as a noninvasive selected biomarker of gut barrier function to identify and debug calves suffering from diarrhea. Furthermore, another purpose was to define the appearance of leaky gut (LeaG) among calves with diarrhea. By use of commercially available Bovine Zonulin ELISA test kits with a well-designed methodology all 11 diseased and other relevant healthy calves gave positive test results. Circulating zonulin levels (ng/mL) expressed as (±SEM), there were significant differences (p&lt;0.001) between healthy (26.43±3.528) and diarrheic calves (57.97±4.250). As a preliminary conclusion, it should not be unwise to draw the hypothesis that zonulin levels debug diarrheic calves from healthy ones. Further studies are warranted.</p> Deniz Alıç Ural Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Veterinary and Animal Research (IJVAR) 2022-12-20 2022-12-20 5 3 159 161 The Light and Scanning Electron Microscopic Structure of Pecten oculi in the Goose (Anser anser) <p>This study aims to establish the light and electron microscopic structure of the pecten oculi in the goose (<em>Anser anser</em>). For this purpose, 12 samples of pecten oculi extracted from 6 goose eyes were used. In the study, it was found that the goose pecten consists of 13-14 pleats. The maximum transversal length of the eye was approximately 10 mm, the corneal diameter was 5 mm, the basal length of the pecten was 7 mm, the apical length was 1.5 mm, and the height of the pecten was 5.55 mm (n=6). In pecten pleats, the mean diameters of two separate vessels, primary and secondary, were 48.94 and 23.36 μm respectively. The primary vessels located at the centre of the pecten pleats were surrounded by the secondary vessels. It was observed that the melanocytes in pleats gradually intensified from basal to apical regions. Pecten covered to the vitreo-pecteneal limiting membrane and, hyalocytes were found on this part. This study revealed that the goose pecten has a structure similar to the avian species in the waterfowl family.</p> Deniz Korkmaz Ismail Sah Harem Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Veterinary and Animal Research (IJVAR) 2022-12-20 2022-12-20 5 3 162 167 Propolis: The Role of Propolis in Cancer <p>Propolis is a resinous natural product produced by honey bees by mixing collected buds and exudates of plants with bee wax. Bees use propolis to protect themselves against wind and rain by using it to construct and repair hives. Propolis has a wide range of biological effects as it is a mixture of natural substances, and it is widely used for its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, immunomodulatory, and anti-cancer effects. Propolis has been used in traditional medicine since time immemorial. Research studies on the anti-tumor effects of propolis extracts and components such as flavonoids, phenolic acids, and their esters demonstrate their potential to be used in the development of new anti-tumor agents. Propolis shows an anti-carcinogenic effect against cancers of the brain, head and neck, skin, breast, liver, pancreas, kidney, bladder, prostate, colon, and blood. In-vivo and in-vitro studies have shown that propolis has cytotoxic, anti-genotoxic or anti-mutagenic, anti-proliferative, anti-angiogenic, anti-metastatic, and proapoptotic properties. Its main mechanisms in cancer treatment can be explained as prevention of metastasis, arrest of the cell cycle, induction of apoptosis and alleviation of harmful side effects caused by chemotherapy. The beneficial effects of natural products on human health have been reported in studies to prevent tumor formation and/or suppress the growth of tumors into cancer. In this review, detailed information about the properties, biological effects, and anti-cancer effects of propolis was given by reviewing current literatures.</p> Süreyya Karaaslan Miyase Çınar Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Veterinary and Animal Research (IJVAR) 2022-12-20 2022-12-20 5 3 168 173 Artemisia Annua: An antibiotic alternative in the poultry industry <p>The poultry industry is based on raising fast-growing chickens. In recent decades, several antibiotics have been employed as growth promoters in the chicken industry, but antibiotic use is banned in the poultry industry due to increased antibiotic resistance and negative impacts on human health. Scientists started searching for alternative antibiotic products as antibiotic resistance increased. Probiotics, prebiotics, organic acids, plant extracts, etheric oils, and immunological stimulants are some of the alternatives. In recent years, these products have improved animal performance, increased animal productivity, prevented and controlled enteric infections, and reduced antibiotic use in animal agriculture. <em>Artemisia,</em> which is currently in scattered form in various research papers, and to draw the attention of experts throughout the world to the Artemisia species' untapped potential. <em>Artemisia annua </em>is also known as sweet wormwood, sweet Annie, and sweet annual wormwood (Chinese: qngho). It's a common wormwood species native to Asia's temperate zones. The active ingredient present in the <em>Artemisia</em> genus is Artemisinin, and chemically it contains both volatile and non-volatile constituents. Biological activities of the <em>Artemisia</em> genus include antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-malarial, anti-coccidial, anti-oxidant, and anti-tumor effects. It has positive effects on growth performance, FCR, gut health, immunity, digestibility, and meat quality of broilers. In conclusion, <em>Artemisia annua</em> is the best alternative product for avoiding anti-microbial resistance in the poultry industry without compromising growth and production. This study aims to review the research conducted on the <em>Artemisia </em>genus.</p> Hafiz Muhammad Nouman Roshan Riaz Ibrar Ahmed Gökhan Şen Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Veterinary and Animal Research (IJVAR) 2022-12-20 2022-12-20 5 3 174 180