International Journal of Veterinary and Animal Research (IJVAR) https://ijvar.org/index.php/ijvar <p>International Journal of Veterinary and Animal Research (IJVAR) accepts original research, reviews, clinical trials, case reports and correspondence. <strong>***As of January 2019, manuscripts written only in English has been processed for evaluation and publication.***</strong></p> <ul> <li class="show">​Animal feed and nutrition</li> <li class="show">Anatomy</li> <li class="show">Animal Behavior</li> <li class="show">Animal biotechnology</li> <li class="show">Animal breeding</li> <li class="show">Animal Diseases</li> <li class="show">Animal Feed</li> <li class="show">Animal husbandry</li> <li class="show">Animal nutrition</li> <li class="show">Animal Nutrition&nbsp; and Welfare</li> <li class="show">Animal parasitology</li> <li class="show">Animal Immunology</li> <li class="show">Animal physiology</li> <li class="show">Animal Reproduction</li> <li class="show">Animal Vaccine</li> <li class="show">Animal Viruses</li> <li class="show">Biological science</li> <li class="show">Diseases Companion and Wild Animals</li> <li class="show">Equine​</li> <li class="show">Ethology</li> <li class="show">Fisheries</li> <li class="show">Food Safety</li> <li class="show">Infectious diseases</li> <li class="show">Marine Science</li> <li class="show">Pathology</li> <li class="show">Pharmacological medicine</li> <li class="show">Transgenic animal production</li> <li class="show">Veterinary Clinical Research</li> <li class="show">Veterinary medicine</li> <li class="show">Veterinary Parasitology</li> <li class="show">Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology</li> <li class="show">Veterinary science</li> <li class="show">Veterinary Technician</li> <li class="show">Zoonotic Disease</li> <li class="show">Zootechny</li> </ul> Anatolia Science Academy en-US International Journal of Veterinary and Animal Research (IJVAR) 2651-3609 Comparison of The Efficacy of Intratesticular Lidocaine and Bupivacaine During Castration in Cats https://ijvar.org/index.php/ijvar/article/view/576 <p>In this study, it was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of intratesticularly administered lidocaine and bupivacaine in castration in cats. 20 cats were divided into two groups regardless of breed and age. 80 microgram/kg medetomidine injection was administered for sedation. 4 mg/kg lidocaine or 1 mg/kg bupivacaine were injected intratesticularly in lidocaine and bupivacaine groups respectively. Castration was performed with routine methods. The reactions of the animals to the incision and the extraction of the funiculus spermaticus were recorded. After the operation, the animals were awakened by atipamezole. The pulse rate, respiratory rate and pain scores were evaluated for 6 hours at half-hour intervals. UNESP-Botucatu cat pain scale, Grimace cat pain scale and Glasgow cat pain scale were used to evaluate pain scores. A statistically significant difference was found between the groups in Grimace and Glasgow pain scores at the 150th min. and 180th min. postoperative evaluations (p&lt;0.05). A statistically significant difference was found between the groups in Botucatu pain score at the 60th, 90th, 150th, 180th, 300th and 330th min. (p&lt;0.05). No statistically significant difference was found in the pulse and respiration values ​​(p&gt;0.05). As a result, it was determined that bupivacaine should be preferred to lidocaine for long-lasting surgical procedures and postoperative analgesia due to its long duration of action.</p> Belemir Tan Ertugrul Elma Zeynep Pekcan Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Veterinary and Animal Research (IJVAR) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-12-30 2023-12-30 6 3 77 82 Intestinal Integrity Assessment with Diamine Oxidase Activity in Dogs with Atopic Dermatitis https://ijvar.org/index.php/ijvar/article/view/579 <p>Diamin oxidase (dAo) as a valuable biomarker, and a mirror of the integrity/mucosal function of the small intestine (sint). The levels of dAo in the serum and mucosa of the sint could be capable of determining as an assessment of sint barrier function. Given better understanding of gut-brain-skin axis in veterinary internal medicine field, relevant data is lacking through dogs with atopic dermatitis (atode) in which resarches focus and rely on skin changes. However more data is crucial, which prompted the present author to perform this study and analyzed the relationship between integrity/mucosal function of sint to those of dogs with atode. Dogs enrolled and classified as suggested criterion for mild (10), moderate (35) and severe (60) skin lesions scoring based on CADESI-04. Commercially available Canine Diamine Oxidase ELISA Kit were purchased for dAo analytes. As detected by Quantitave Competitive ELISA, dAo levels (ng/mL) were detected as 5,28±1,19, 2,594±0,76 and 1,28±0,22, with a statistical significance of Group III in contrast to Group I, suggesting that as severity of the atode elevates, circulating dAo levels were declined in correlation. It should not be unwise to draw preliminary suggestion that dAo levels could alter in relationship with disease activity in dogs with atode. This alterations, mainly deduction, should reflect diasease activity, in which dogs in Group III (severe atode) represented lowest dAo values in contrasto to other classfied groups of disease.</p> Kerem Ural Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Veterinary and Animal Research (IJVAR) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-12-30 2023-12-30 6 3 83 86 Prevalence of Trichuriasis in Shelter Dogs of Kırıkkale with Emphasis on Turkish Reports https://ijvar.org/index.php/ijvar/article/view/583 <p>The whipworm, <em>Trichuris vulpis</em>, dwells in the caecum and infrequently the colon in the dog. The present study aimed to detect trichuriasis in shelter dogs in Kirikkale province, Türkiye. The other reports originated from Türkiye on trichuriasis were addressed together with the results. The investigation was conducted from January through December of 2022. The faecal samples were obtained from 200 dogs (mixed breed, older than 1 year) from two different shelters in Kirikkale. The faecal samples were analysed by centrifugal flotation both zinc sulfate and saturated salt solution. <em>Trichuris</em> spp. eggs were only found in 0.5% of the faeces (1/200), while other parasite eggs or oocysts were found in 21.5% of the faeces examined (43/200). The eggs of <em>Toxocara</em> spp. (6%, 12/200), <em>Toxascaris</em> sp. (2.5%, 5/200), <em>Taenia</em> spp. (2.5%, 5/200), hookworm eggs (0.5%, 1/200), <em>Isospora</em> spp. oocysts (11%) (22/200) and <em>Sarcocystis </em>spp. sporocysts (0.5%, 1/200) were detected. Only 3/200 (1.5%) of the dogs evaluated had mixed infections. Regarding the detection of all parasite eggs and oocysts, the zinc sulfate flotation technique outperformed the flotation with saturated salt solution. Canine trichuriasis has rarely been reported in Türkiye. The results of this study also support the previous reports.</p> Gozde Akkus Sinem Akdeniz Kader Yildiz Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Veterinary and Animal Research (IJVAR) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-12-30 2023-12-30 6 3 87 90 Preparation of Quail (Coturnix coturnix) Skeleton to Promote the Teaching Facilities of Avian Anatomy Laboratory https://ijvar.org/index.php/ijvar/article/view/591 <p>The stiff structure of the body, or skeleton, provides the body with its overall form, permits movement, generates blood cells, and protects delicate organs. This research was done to prepare the quail (<em>Coturnix coturnix</em>) skeleton for the avian anatomy museum and educational facilities. A total of five matured Quails (at the age of 6 months) were collected from a commercial quail farm, in Khulna, Bangladesh. The carotid artery and jugular vein were carefully dissected before skinning each quail with feathers, removing all viscera, combs, and wattles. To adequately disintegrate the muscles, ligaments, and tendons, different body sections of the bones were separated, wrapped in markin cloth, and cooked in a 3% solution of soda water for 1.5 hours. The body parts were then maintained in separate solutions for 5 days. After five days, the bones were thoroughly cleaned by soaking them in a 5% hydrogen peroxide solution for 30 minutes, and rinse them under running water. To maintain the order of the vertebrae in the various segments, a steel wire was inserted into the vertebral foramen. After proper sun drying for 25 days, a set of bony components from different parts (axial and appendicular) of the body was finally found and articulated to rise into a whole skeletal frame. Therefore, the present work denotes time-consuming and easy preparation of the avian skeleton as well as the skeletal framework will be helpful for veterinary students in the avian anatomy laboratory as well as to enhance the elegance of the anatomy museum.</p> Swarup Kumar Kundu Zahid Hasan Rocky Md. Amim Al Maruf Ahanaf Tahmid Chowdhory Abu Sayeed Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Veterinary and Animal Research (IJVAR) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-12-30 2023-12-30 6 3 91 95 Comparison of Various Storage Conditions for The Stability of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Bacteriophage M8AEC16 https://ijvar.org/index.php/ijvar/article/view/593 <p>In this study, bacteriophage M8AEC16, which is lytic to <em>Escherichia coli</em> O157:H7, isolated and characterized within the scope of our previous studies, was used to determine the stability during 6 months of storage at +4°C, -20°C and -85°C using glycerol, skimmed milk powder and carrageenan as cryoprotectants. For this purpose, bacteriophage M8AEC16, was enriched with <em>E. coli</em> O157:H7 ATCC 43895 and then phage suspension groups were prepared by adding three different cryoprotectants (test groups) in addition to those without cryoprotectant (control). Bacteriophage suspensions were stored at 3 different storage temperatures (+4°C, -20°C and -85°C) for six mount period. During storage, phage titers were determined on double-layer LB agar by making serial dilutions of phage suspensions on the 0th day and at the end of each month. As a result of the study, it was observed that stability was maintained at all temperatures for all groups during the first two months. However, in the third and fourth months, a decrease in the counts of bacteriophages were observed at -85°C in the glycerol added group. In addition to the control group, in the fifth month, carrageenan provided the highest preservation at all temperatures. In the sixth month, +4°C glycerol provided the best preservation, while carrageenan provided the highest preservation at other temperatures compared to the other test groups. In conclusion, the most successful result was obtained at +4°C for the preservation of <em>Escherichia coli</em> O157:H7 phage M8AEC16 considering the cost, usefulness and effectiveness.</p> Nazlı Firdevs Aşılıoğlu Naim Deniz Ayaz Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Veterinary and Animal Research (IJVAR) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-12-30 2023-12-30 6 3 96 101