International Journal of Veterinary and Animal Research (IJVAR) <p>International Journal of Veterinary and Animal Research (IJVAR) accepts original research, reviews, clinical trials, case reports and correspondence. <strong>***As of January 2019, manuscripts written only in English has been processed for evaluation and publication.***</strong></p> <ul> <li class="show">​Animal feed and nutrition</li> <li class="show">Anatomy</li> <li class="show">Animal Behavior</li> <li class="show">Animal biotechnology</li> <li class="show">Animal breeding</li> <li class="show">Animal Diseases</li> <li class="show">Animal Feed</li> <li class="show">Animal husbandry</li> <li class="show">Animal nutrition</li> <li class="show">Animal Nutrition&nbsp; and Welfare</li> <li class="show">Animal parasitology</li> <li class="show">Animal Immunology</li> <li class="show">Animal physiology</li> <li class="show">Animal Reproduction</li> <li class="show">Animal Vaccine</li> <li class="show">Animal Viruses</li> <li class="show">Biological science</li> <li class="show">Diseases Companion and Wild Animals</li> <li class="show">Equine​</li> <li class="show">Ethology</li> <li class="show">Fisheries</li> <li class="show">Food Safety</li> <li class="show">Infectious diseases</li> <li class="show">Marine Science</li> <li class="show">Pathology</li> <li class="show">Pharmacological medicine</li> <li class="show">Transgenic animal production</li> <li class="show">Veterinary Clinical Research</li> <li class="show">Veterinary medicine</li> <li class="show">Veterinary Parasitology</li> <li class="show">Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology</li> <li class="show">Veterinary science</li> <li class="show">Veterinary Technician</li> <li class="show">Zoonotic Disease</li> <li class="show">Zootechny</li> </ul> Anatolia Science Academy en-US International Journal of Veterinary and Animal Research (IJVAR) 2651-3609 Determination of Mycoplasma haemofelis Incidence in Cats Visiting Veterinary Clinics in Kırıkkale <p>This study aimed to determine the presence of <em>Mycoplasma haemofelis </em>(Mhf), which is a member of the hemotropic mycoplasmas called infectious anemia of cats, known to be zoonotic, usually progresses with hemolytic anemia in cats, and can lead to the death of the cat if not treated, in the Kırıkkale province by the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method. The experimental units of the study consisted of 50 male and 50 female cats of different breeds, aged between 2-months and 10-years, presented to the Kırıkkale University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Internal Medicine, Surgery and Obstetrics Clinics with different complaints during January-August 2021. Smears prepared from blood samples were examined cytologically by the Giemsa. In addition, total blood count was done and the increased blood samples were analysed by PCR for the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. According to the PCR analysis findings of the study, it was concluded that the incidence of <em>Mycoplasma haemofelis</em> in Kırıkkale is 13 %.</p> Onur Pekel Sibel Yasa Duru Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Veterinary and Animal Research (IJVAR) 2022-08-27 2022-08-27 5 2 40 46 Heat Stress and Seasonal Dissipation of Circulating Zonulin Levels Among Calves in Aydın Region <p>Zonulin, a well-recognized protein, is influencing the integrity of intercellular connections in the intestines. It has also been evidenced that heat stress (hS) might alter intestinal permeability. In the present retrospective field research the aim was to investigate the gastrointestinal permeability of calves exposed to hS (especially in summer) by determining serum zonulin levels and their relationship to seasonal dissipation among appearently healthy calves. As two different months represented 2 seasons, serum zonulin concentrations in January 2022 (at 20:00 pm 4°C and 08:00 am 10°C) and June 2022 (at 20:00 pm 19°C and 08:00 am 27°C) exhibited significant differences. Inter-group and intra-group comparison showed statistically significant differences (p=0.012) both in seasonal distribution and spatial distribution at different day/night times. When compared between the January and June groups, the mean zonulin levels (ng/mL) at 12 pm and 08:00 am in the January group were 28.04±12.49 vs. 11.55±8.45, respectively (p=0.012). On the other hand at June group the mean zonulin levels at 12 pm and 08.00 am were 58.54±19.16 vs 24.03±9.9, respectively (p=0.012). Obtained results should be cautiously subjected to interpretation, in which hS affect intestinal integrity and seasonal dissipation of circulating zonulin levels should be taken into consideration for intestinal health of calves.</p> Deniz Alıç Ural Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Veterinary and Animal Research (IJVAR) 2022-08-27 2022-08-27 5 2 47 49 Investigation of the Prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis in Dogs in Ardahan Region <p>The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of <em>Dirofilaria immitis </em>(<em>D. immitis</em>) in dogs in the Ardahan region. The study material consisted of 100 Akbaş crossbred dogs (53 females and 47 males) between the ages of 3-7 in Ardahan region. An immunochromatographic analysis test kit was used to determine seroprevalence. The presence of antigen against <em>D. immitis</em> was determined as 12% (12/100). When the dogs with antigens against <em>D. immitis</em> were evaluated according to their age, it was determined that the highest positivity was in 4 years old (15%) (P˃0.05). Antigen presence against <em>D. immitis</em> was detected in 10.6% of male dogs and 13.2% of female dogs (P˃0.05). According to the data obtained from this study, it was concluded that <em>D. immitis </em>was seen in dogs in the Ardahan region and that protection and control measures should be taken for the eradication of this disease due to reasons such as global warming, wildlife and lack of education.</p> Cemalettin Ayvazoğlu Enes Akyüz Metin Ögün Pınar Ayvazoglu Demir Şemiştan Kızıltepe Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Veterinary and Animal Research (IJVAR) 2022-08-27 2022-08-27 5 2 50 53 Investigation of Vancomycin Resistance and Some Virulence Factors in Enterococci Strains Isolated from Dogs <p>The aim of this study was to evaluate <em>in vitro </em>antimicrobial susceptibility of <em>Enteroccoccus faecalis</em> and <em>Enterococcus faecium</em> strains isolated from dog, as well as the phenotypic and genotypic characterization of vancomycin resistance and some virulence genes of the isolates. A total of 197 samples were analyzed, including 114 urine, 63 rectal swab and 20 vaginal swab samples. <em>Enteroccocus</em> spp. were isolated from 83 (42.1%) of the samples. By PCR test with species-specific primers, 42 (50.6%) isolates were identified as <em>E. faecalis</em> (95.2%) and <em>E. faecium</em> (4.8%). The highest resistance was found to erythromycin (16.66%) and tetracycline (11.9%) whereas vancomycin resistance was low (4.76%) by disc diffusion method. <em>GelE</em> (47.6%) and <em>asa1</em> (38.1%) genes associated with the virulence were detected in the isolates, while all isolates were negative for <em>cylA </em>gene. As a result, <em>E. faecalis</em> from canine samples was isolated at higher rate than that of <em>E. faecium, </em>and the resistance of the isolates to β-lactam antibiotics (ampicillin, penicillin, imipenem, and vancomycin) as well as multiple antibiotic resistance was low. The <em>gelE</em> gene was detected in more isolates than the <em>asa1</em> gene, and all isolates were negative for <em>cylA</em> gene.</p> Özgül Gülaydın İsmail Hakkı Ekin Ziya Ilhan Muazzez Yesilyurt Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Veterinary and Animal Research (IJVAR) 2022-08-27 2022-08-27 5 2 54 59 Treatment of Orthopedic Problems with Epoxy-Pin External Fixator in Cats and Dogs <p>The aim of this study was to present 6 dogs and 2 cats treated with handmade external fixator. The animals included in the study had 3 cases of non-union, 1 case of luxation, and 4 cases of fracture. All the cases were successfully treated with a handmade external fixator which was made from an endotracheal tube and epoxy. There were no complications developed except for light leakage in the pin site in one case. All of the animals had started to use their extremities in the early postoperative period, except for one case. As the fixator provided the opportunity for weight-bearing, increasing stability in the fracture line in the early postoperative period, this provided some beneficial effects on healing. The external fixator made using an endotracheal tube and epoxy can be selected as an inexpensive treatment method for cats and dogs.</p> Büşra Kibar Kurt Zeynep Bilgen Sen Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Veterinary and Animal Research (IJVAR) 2022-08-27 2022-08-27 5 2 60 65 Treatment of Radius and Ulna Fractures in Toy and Miniature Breed Dogs (22 Cases) <p>Radial and ulnar fractures are common in small animals. Especially toy and miniature breed dogs are at high risk of incidence. Although there are plenty of studies on the treatment of radius and ulna fractures in small animals, studies related to the radius and ulna fractures in toy and miniature breed dogs are limited. The objective of this study was to report the diagnostic information and treatment outcome of radial and ulnar fracture treatment in toy and miniature breed dogs. Radius and ulna fractured 22 toy and miniature breed dogs were included in the study. Clinical findings, radiographic images, treatment applications, prognosis and outcomes were evaluated. As a treatment method, external coaptation in 5 extremities and surgical reduction and osteosynthesis in 17 extremities were performed. Out of 5 dogs who underwent external coaptation, 4 had good outcome and 1 had malunion. Out of 17 patients which underwent surgical treatment, 13 had a good outcome, 2 had nonunion, 1 had surgical site infection, and 1 had malunion and implant failure. As a result, original data on the etiology, diagnosis, treatment, prognosis evaluations, and surgical outcomes of radius and ulna fractures of toy and miniature breed dogs were presented. External coaptation considered could be successful in closed and undislocated radius and ulna fractures of toy and miniature breed dogs. However, the surgical approach and osteosynthesis performing are considered essential in dislocated, comminuted, complicated fractures, or open fractures. Further prospective studies are needed to compare specific surgical treatment methods.</p> Mehmet Zeki Yılmaz Deveci Cafer Tayer İşler Muhammed Enes Altug Ömer Kırgız Ziya Yurtal Halil Alakus İbrahim Alakus Zeynep Nur Agyar Nimet Öründü Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Veterinary and Animal Research (IJVAR) 2022-08-27 2022-08-27 5 2 66 72 Colorimetric LAMP PCR kit design for rapid diagnosis of Bovine coronavirus, Bovine rotavirus group A, Escherichia coli K99+ and Cryptosporidium parvum in Neonatal calf diarrhea <p>Reducing calf deaths and diseases are important for the future and profitability of cattle herds. Early diagnosis and treatment of calf diarrhea can reduce mortality rates and eliminate the need for cattle imports. It is important to produce local molecular kits based on the colorimetric Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method and to use them in the field, instead of using immunocrotographic tests with low sensitivity. With this study, four important enteric pathogens responsible for calf diarrhea (Bovine coronavirus [BCoV; formerly Betacoronavirus 1], group A Bovine rotavirus [BRV], <em>Escherichia coli</em> K99+ and Cryptosporidium parvum) were isolated in farm and field conditions without requiring qualified personnel and complicated devices. It is aimed to design a routine molecular kit based on the colorimetric LAMP method that can be detected in tubes in the range of 15-30 minutes. In addition, it is aimed to reveal the test kit performances by comparing the results of these LAMP PCR kits, which we will design, with in-house PCR and immunochromatographic test kits. A total of 100 calves stool samples were included (these samples were confirmed as positive for BcoV (n:25), BRV group A (n:25), <em>Escherichia coli</em> K99+ (n:25) and Cryptosporidium parvum (n:25) by in-house PCR). Nucleic acid (DNA/RNA) isolations from Neonatal Calf stool samples were performed using the commercial isolation kit. Results from LAMP kit and rapid antigen kits were compared according to in-house PCR results. Results of this study, especially <em>E. coli</em> K99 diagnostic performance were found to be closer to each other, while performance differences in viral parameters such as BRV and BcoV were found to be significantly different. It was determined that the LAMP PCR method performed better than rapid antigen test. As a conclusion, It is very important for early diagnosis to use the colorimetric LAMP method, which can be detected in separate tubes in 15-30 minutes in farm and field conditions without requiring qualified personnel and complicated devices. We believe that, thanks to early and reliable diagnosis, the calf mortality rates will be greatly reduced, as the infected animals will be treated early.</p> Mehmet Demirci akın Yigin Seda Ekici Hikmet Dinç Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Veterinary and Animal Research (IJVAR) 2022-08-27 2022-08-27 5 2 73 79 Investigation of Lipid Mobilization and Oxidative Stress Parameters in The Serum Before and After Surgery of Cows with Left Displacement Abomasum <p>Left Abomasum Displacement (LDA) is one of the most important metabolic diseases caused by negative energy balance during the early lactation period for high milk efficient cows. This study aimed to investigate the lipid mobilization and oxidative stress parameters in cows with LDA before and after the operation. In this research, cows with LDA (n=16) were divided into three groups that are before operation (pre-op LDA), immediately after the operation (post-op LDA), and on the 10th day after the operation (post-op 10 LDA). Control groups were formed from early lactation cows (n=8) and dry period (n=8). In serum samples collected from the study groups, total cholesterol, HDL and LDL cholesterol, triacylglycerol, free fatty acid (FFA), β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA), malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and AST, GGT activities were determined spectrophotometrically, total antioxidant level (TAS), total oxidant level (TOS) and paraoxonase 1/arylesterase (PON1/ARES)] enzyme activity was measured according to the procedure of the colorimetric kit. Serum TOS and MDA levels increased in cattle with pre-op LDA compared to control groups, and MDA levels decreased to normal levels in both groups after the operation. TAS levels and PON1/ARES activities decreased in cattle with pre-op LDA compared to control groups and increased gradually in post-op groups. Serum total cholesterol, HDL, and LDL cholesterol levels decreased in cattle with pre-op LDA compared to the control groups and did not return to normal levels in the groups with post-op LDA. While BHBA levels and AST activities increased in cattle with pre-op LDA compared to control groups, they reached normal values in cattle with LDA on the post-op 10th day. It has been concluded that in evaluating the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of the disease in dairy cows with LDA, oxidative stress parameters such as TAS, TOS, and PON1/ARES may be used together with lipid parameters.</p> Nurcanan Aslan Kürşat Yiğitarslan Tülay Büyükoğlu Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Veterinary and Animal Research (IJVAR) 2022-08-27 2022-08-27 5 2 80 88 A New Era Under Soil Based Probiotics for Anti-Pruritic Combat Among Cats with Feline Atopic Skin Syndrome <p>Present research was conducted at the University of Aydin Adnan Menderes, Faculty of Veterinary. In a total of 10 cats with pruritic dermatoses were allocated, classified [Feline atopic skin syndrome (FaSs)] and adapted to the retrospective case controlled study on the basis of Polycheck in vitro Allergy Test, clinical signs, dermatoscopic and cytological examination. No prior drug prescription, nor immunosuppressive treatment were evident, which was an inclusion criteria. Complete blood count, serum biochemistry, and endocrine panels were all deemed available on days 0 and 21 for all cats involved. The Feline Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index (FeDESI) and a 10 cm visual analog scale (VAS) were deemed available as relevant prognostic parameters. A three strain invoving soil-based probiotic used via rectal route significantly decreased FEDESI and VAS pruritus scores after 10 days of rectal use. Pre-treament day 0 FEDESI scores (median ± SD) (106.3 ± 41.38), were significantly higher than scores on day 10 (15.3 ± 10.53) switching the severity of the disease to mild status in all cases. Furthermore, day 0 VAS pruritus scores were 7.4 ± 1.78 (mean ± SD) (prior to treatment), whereas owner VAS pruritus score was decreased to 1.3 ± 1.06 (mean ± SD) significantly (p=0.005). It should not be unwise to draw preliminary conclusion that 3 chained soil-based Bacillus probiotic was capable of short term cure for FaSs. Bacillus probiotics with safety usage should be added to therapeutical armamentarium of FaSs.</p> Kerem Ural Hasan Erdogan Songul Erdogan Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Veterinary and Animal Research (IJVAR) 2022-08-27 2022-08-27 5 2 89 93 Investigation of the Effects of Different Levels of Dietary Clinoptilolite on Bone Development, Carcass Traits and Some Blood Parameters in Japanese Quails <p>This study was aimed at determining the effects of dietary supplementation with 0%, 3%, 6% and 8% of clinoptilolite on live weight gain, carcass/carcass part traits and some blood and bone parameters in quails. For this purpose, forty 17-day-old Japanese quails (<em>Coturnix coturnix japonica</em>) were randomly assigned to four groups, each of 10 animals. The study groups were established as follows: BC (+0% clinoptilolite), B3C (3% clinoptilolite), B6C (6% clinoptilolite) and B8C (8% clinoptilolite). Live weight measurements were performed until 35 days of age, and after the measurement of the slaughter weight at 38 days of age, all animals were slaughtered. The live weight values measured in Groups B3C and B6C were similar to those of group BC, the control group. Even if slightly different, higher mean initial live weights in the males resulted in final live weights higher than those of the females. It was observed that the feed conversion rate had improved in the groups that received dietary clinoptilolite. The weight of abdominal fat was determined to have decreased with increasing dietary clinoptilolite levels. The weights of the edible visceral organs and abdominal fat were higher in the female quails, compared to the males. The osteometric values of the femur and humerus were higher in the males, compared to the females, in Group B3C. While calcium (Ca-CAL) and magnesium (Mg) levels were lowest in Group B8C, phosphorus (P-FOS) levels were lowest in groups BC and B3C. In result, it is suggested that dietary supplementation with clinoptilolite, up to a level of 6%, would not show any adverse effect on the fattening performance of animals. Thus, clinoptilolite can be used as a feed additive. Furthermore, good quality clinoptilolite supplied at low costs may also aid in preventing feed losses due to wetting, depending on the environmental conditions.</p> Süleyman Ercüment Önel Baran Erdem Serkan İrfan Köse Sema Alaşahan Sevinç Ateş Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Veterinary and Animal Research (IJVAR) 2022-08-27 2022-08-27 5 2 94 101 Total Knee Replacement Applications in Veterinary Surgery: A Review <p>Artificial joint prostheses are preferred as a good treatment alternative for joints that are difficult or impossible to treat. With the advancement of technological possibilities, the joints that need to be locked or amputated are saved by total joint prostheses. Although there is relatively more information about total hip joint replacements, there is not enough information and experience about total knee replacements. Active use of total knee replacement in veterinary surgery will improve the standard of living of many animals. The aim of this review is to provide information about total knee replacement, which is not yet widely used, and to consider it among treatment alternatives.</p> Ziya Yurtal Kadri Kulualp İbrahim Alakus Halil Alakus Ömer Kırgız Muhammed Enes Altug Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Veterinary and Animal Research (IJVAR) 2022-08-27 2022-08-27 5 2 102 106 The Effects of Some Feed Additives in Nutrition of Ruminant Animals <p>In this review, the use of some feed additives in the diets of ruminant animals is discussed. Brief information about the anatomy of the digestive system of ruminants and the metabolism of some nutrients in these animals are presented. In addition, summary information about some feed additives used in animal nutrition is given. Particularly detailed information about pre/probiotics among feed additives is presented, and the effects of S. cerevisiae, known as yeast, are discussed. In ruminant animals, unlike the monogastrics, feed additives, especially pre-and probiotics, are utilized to affect fermentation in the rumen. In addition, it is seen that it is used to increase immunity in pre-ruminants. However, it is obvious that more studies are needed on these issues.</p> Muslimo Abdullahi Sheik Hassan Mehmet Akif Karslı Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Veterinary and Animal Research (IJVAR) 2022-08-27 2022-08-27 5 2 107 112