International Journal of Veterinary and Animal Research (IJVAR) https://ijvar.org/index.php/ijvar <p>International Journal of Veterinary and Animal Research (IJVAR) accepts original research, reviews, clinical trials, case reports and correspondence. <strong>***As of January 2019, manuscripts written only in English has been processed for evaluation and publication.***</strong></p> <ul> <li class="show">​Animal feed and nutrition</li> <li class="show">Anatomy</li> <li class="show">Animal Behavior</li> <li class="show">Animal biotechnology</li> <li class="show">Animal breeding</li> <li class="show">Animal Diseases</li> <li class="show">Animal Feed</li> <li class="show">Animal husbandry</li> <li class="show">Animal nutrition</li> <li class="show">Animal Nutrition&nbsp; and Welfare</li> <li class="show">Animal parasitology</li> <li class="show">Animal Immunology</li> <li class="show">Animal physiology</li> <li class="show">Animal Reproduction</li> <li class="show">Animal Vaccine</li> <li class="show">Animal Viruses</li> <li class="show">Biological science</li> <li class="show">Diseases Companion and Wild Animals</li> <li class="show">Equine​</li> <li class="show">Ethology</li> <li class="show">Fisheries</li> <li class="show">Food Safety</li> <li class="show">Infectious diseases</li> <li class="show">Marine Science</li> <li class="show">Pathology</li> <li class="show">Pharmacological medicine</li> <li class="show">Transgenic animal production</li> <li class="show">Veterinary Clinical Research</li> <li class="show">Veterinary medicine</li> <li class="show">Veterinary Parasitology</li> <li class="show">Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology</li> <li class="show">Veterinary science</li> <li class="show">Veterinary Technician</li> <li class="show">Zoonotic Disease</li> <li class="show">Zootechny</li> </ul> Anatolia Science Academy en-US International Journal of Veterinary and Animal Research (IJVAR) 2651-3609 Potentiation of Toxicology with Proteomics: Toxicoproteomics https://ijvar.org/index.php/ijvar/article/view/521 <p>Proteomics, which is called the identification phase of the proteome identifying all the proteins encoded by the genome, has an important place in solving the difficulties experienced in toxicology. Proteomics refers to the study of interactions with other proteins and macromolecules, structure, location, amount, post-translational modifications (PTM), function in tissues/cells of the proteome. With proteomic studies, new relationships between proteins and toxicopathological effects can be determined and it is revealed the information on the toxic action mechanisms of various substances, from metals to peroxisome proliferators. On the other hand, toxicoproteomics seeks to identify critical proteins and pathways in biological systems that respond to it and adversely affected by chemical and environmental exposures using protein expression technologies. Toxicoproteomics combines 3 discipline areas. These are 1) traditional toxicology and pathology 2) differential protein and gene expression analysis 3) systems biology. Toxicoproteomic studies are an important area that can provide critical tools for identification of biomarkers associated with exposure to toxic substances, assessing their reliability and designing appropriate measures that can minimize adverse effects. In this statement, it is aimed to emphasize the importance of proteomics in toxicology.</p> Mustafa Yipel Aysun İlhan Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Veterinary and Animal Research (IJVAR) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-03-28 2022-03-28 5 1 36 39 The Effect of Omentin on the Contractility of Rat Uterus https://ijvar.org/index.php/ijvar/article/view/525 <p>Adipokines are a group of proteins that are synthesized from adipose tissue. Omentin is a type of adipokine which is detected in human serum and it is evaluated as a secreted factor from adipose tissue, placenta and ovarium. The knowledge about the effect of omentin on reproduction is limited. In the presented study, investigation of omentin effect on <em>in vitro</em> uterine contractions was evaluated. The uteruses of the rats which were collected from 20 virgin female rats, were isolated and suspended in the isolated organ bath. The experimental protocols were carried out in 3 groups. The effect of omentin on spontaneous uterine contractions in protocol 1, induced by oxytocin (2.5 mIU/mL) in protocol 2, and induced uterine contractions with PGF<sub>2</sub>α (10<sup>-6 </sup>M) in protocol 3 was tested. The effect of omentin on isolated uterine tissues was tested with the administration of 10, 100 and 300 ng/mL omentin. 300 µL of distilled water was applied to the control of each group. In this study, 10, 100 and 300 ng/mL of omentin applied for 10 minutes did not have an effect on uterine contractility in all study groups (p&gt;0.05). As a result, further studies with higher doses and longer incubation times are recommended.</p> Cağatay Yıldırım Hasan Ceyhun Macun Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Veterinary and Animal Research (IJVAR) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-03-28 2022-03-28 5 1 01 04 Questionnaire Study on Feeding Practices of Pace Horses in Aegean and Marmara Regions of Turkey https://ijvar.org/index.php/ijvar/article/view/520 <p>This sectional study aims to collect data about feeding practices for pace horses in the Aegean and Marmara regions of Turkey. For this purpose, a questionnaire consisting of 69 free text and multiple-choice questions was developed. The questionnaire was implemented on 29-31 August 2014 by personal interviews and was online on social media for ten months. The questionnaire comprised sections on breeder demographic information, farm condition, feeding habit, and nutritional disease. Fifty volunteer horse owners who had a total of 271 horses have participated in the study. Evaluation of the results focused on nutrition practices. Unfortunately, 46% of the respondents were not rasping their horses’ teeth, and an important part of them was not using supplementary oil (78%) or feed additives (84%). Drinking water after exercise (74%) as well as rotten, mouldy, and bacterially contaminated feed (72%) were reported as the most important colic reason by the responders. Based on the results of our study, educational initiatives are needed to inform pace horse owners about appropriate nutrition and related diseases to increase the pace horse race performance.</p> Erdem Danyer Tanay Bilal Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Veterinary and Animal Research (IJVAR) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-03-28 2022-03-28 5 1 05 09 Comparison of Vaginal Flora, Vaginal Cytology, Blood Values and Hormone Level of Cats in Different Reproductive Periods https://ijvar.org/index.php/ijvar/article/view/486 <p>The aim of this study was to investigate vaginal cytology, haematological and hormonal values, the presence of bacteria in the vagina, and the relationship between these findings in different reproductive periods in cats. The study consisted of 30 healthy non-geriatric female cats that had reachedto puberty. The cats were divided into 3 equal groups (each having 10 cats) as estrus, anestrus and pregnant. The vaginal samples for microbiological and cytological examination andthe blood samples for hormonal analysis and hemogram were taken at the same time. A total of 100 vaginal epithelial cells were counted from the random areas of thevaginal cytology samples on the slide. The distributions of the percentages of the counted cells according to the groups were subtracted and compared. While there was no bacterial growth in 9 (30%) animals, bacterial growth was observed in 21 (70%) animals. There were no bacterial growth in 3 (30%), 4 (40%) and 2 (20%) animals inestrus, pregnant and anestrus groups, respectively. Estradiol (E2) level (42.64 ± 10.62 pg/ml) in estrus animals was significantly higher (P&lt;0.001) than E2 level in pregnant and an estrus animals. The progesterone (P4) level of the pregnant group (12.22±9.35 ng/ml) was higher (P&lt;0.001) than the P4 levels of the anestrus (0.84±0.25 ng/ml) and the estrus group (0.58±0.28 ng/ml), while the P4 levels of the estrus and the anestrus groups were similar. Significant differences were detected only in MCV, MCH and MCHC, within 19 blood parameters. MCV values were found to be lower in estrus animals (45.68±3.75femtoliter) than only in pregnant (51.21±4.99femtoliter) animals (P=0.007). The difference in MCH values between the estrus group (14.37±0.84 pg) and the pregnant group (15.62 ± 1.18 pg) (P=0.003) and the difference in MCHC values between the pregnant group (30.66±1.17 g/dl) and the anestrus group (32.42±1.04 g/dl) (P&lt;0.001) were statistically significant. The presented results may help in the planning of future studies and the comparison of the obtained values.</p> Levent Termelioğlu Hakan Kalender Serkan Erat Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Veterinary and Animal Research (IJVAR) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-03-28 2022-03-28 5 1 10 18 The Effects of Jujube Fruit (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) Added in the Mixed Feed on Growth Performance and Oxidative Stress Parameters in Quails Raised in Different Stocking Densities https://ijvar.org/index.php/ijvar/article/view/524 <p>This study was conducted to determine the effects of the jujube fruit (<em>Ziziphus jujuba </em>Mill.) added in the feed on growth performance, small intestine histomorphometry, oxidative stress, and carcass parameters in Japanese quails (<em>Coturnix coturnix japonica</em>) raised in two different stocking densities. In the experiment, a total of 280 10-day-old quails were divided into 4 groups with 4 repetitions. Group control was composed of the quails consuming maize-soy based basal diet as 150 cm<sup>2</sup> for each quail; Z group was composed of the quails consuming the basal diet containing jujube of 1% as 150 cm<sup>2</sup> for each quail; Group SD was composed of the quails consuming maize-soy based basal diet as 100 cm<sup>2</sup> for each quail; and ZSD group was composed of the quails consuming the basal diet containing jujube of 1% as 100 cm<sup>2</sup> for each quail. The best live weight and daily live weight increase were determined in Group Z and the best feed consumption was determined in Group C. It was determined that the jujube fruit added into feed significantly decreased the serum and breast muscle MDA levels. The lowest villus height and the highest crypt depth of duodenum and jejunum were determined in Group SD. As a result, it was observed that the jujube fruit added in the feed of the quails raised in two different stocking densities had a positive effect on the live weight, daily live weight increase feed consumption, villus height, villus width, crypt depth, hot carcass performance and serum, breast muscle MDA levels.</p> Mustafa Cellat Sema Alaşahan Muhammed Etyemez İshak Gökçek Tuncer Kutlu Musa Türkmen Mehmet Güvenç Mehmet Çiftçi Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Veterinary and Animal Research (IJVAR) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-03-28 2022-03-28 5 1 19 26 Cardiovascular Effects of Dexmedetomidine-Ketamine Compared with Thiopental Sodium in Sevoflurane Anesthetized Goats https://ijvar.org/index.php/ijvar/article/view/533 <p>The objective of the study is to compare the efficacy and cardiopulmonary effects of dexmedetomidine-ketamine and thiopental sodium in sevoflurane anesthetized in goats. Seven healthy adult female goats with body weight of 35.3±3.82 kg (median±IQ). Each goat received both anesthetics in a randomized cross-over design, with at least 2 weeks intervals. Anesthesia was induced with intravenous dexmedetomidine (2 mg/kg) and ketamine (10 mg/kg) or thiopental sodium (19.3±3.42 mg/kg) (mean±SD) and maintained with sevoflurane for 2 hours. Arterial blood pressure, heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR) and arterial blood gases were monitored. Induction of anesthesia was smooth in all goats. Mean recovery times were significantly longer in thiopental sodium group (P&lt;0.05). Side effects were less common in dexmedetomidine-ketamine group (DKS) than thiopental sodium group (TS). Recovery was uneventful in both groups. Although the mean arterial blood pressures (MAP) were decreased in both groups (P&lt;0.05), the prolonged decrease was recorded in DKS group. The temperature was decreased in both groups in time (P&lt;0.05). Changes in blood oxygenation were significantly higher in DKS group at 15 and 120 minutes compared to TS group (P&lt;0.05). Dexmedetomidine-ketamine provides better anesthesia when compare with thiopental sodium as an induction agent before sevoflorane anesthesia in goats.</p> Birkan Karslı Ali Kumandaş Zeynep Pekcan Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Veterinary and Animal Research (IJVAR) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-03-28 2022-03-28 5 1 27 32 Prolonged Proestrus Bleeding and Medical Treatment in an English Pointer Dog https://ijvar.org/index.php/ijvar/article/view/523 <p>Prolonged proestrus bleeding is a rare pathology observed in bitch. This case is on a British Pointer breed bitch, which came to our clinic for artificial insemination. Artificial insemination was applied to the dog because of vaginal cytology findings, anamnesis, and vaginal discharge. It was thought that estrus is accompanied by proestrus bleeding. Proestrus bleeding was persisting after four days post artificial insemination, therefore GnRH treatment has been applied. After the treatment, bleeding and estrus were simultaneously over. A total of 10 puppies was born.</p> Abdulkadir Kaya Omer Varışlı Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Veterinary and Animal Research (IJVAR) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-03-28 2022-03-28 5 1 33 35