Intestinal Integrity Assessment with Diamine Oxidase Activity in Dogs with Atopic Dermatitis

Abstract views: 52 / PDF downloads: 57


  • Kerem Ural


Atopic dermatitis, diamine oxidase, dog, intestinal integrity


Diamin oxidase (dAo) as a valuable biomarker, and a mirror of the integrity/mucosal function of the small intestine (sint). The levels of dAo in the serum and mucosa of the sint could be capable of determining as an assessment of sint barrier function. Given better understanding of gut-brain-skin axis in veterinary internal medicine field, relevant data is lacking through dogs with atopic dermatitis (atode) in which resarches focus and rely on skin changes. However more data is crucial, which prompted the present author to perform this study and analyzed the relationship between integrity/mucosal function of sint to those of dogs with atode. Dogs enrolled and classified as suggested criterion for mild (10), moderate (35) and severe (60) skin lesions scoring based on CADESI-04. Commercially available Canine Diamine Oxidase ELISA Kit were purchased for dAo analytes. As detected by Quantitave Competitive ELISA, dAo levels (ng/mL) were detected as 5,28±1,19, 2,594±0,76 and 1,28±0,22, with a statistical significance of Group III in contrast to Group I, suggesting that as severity of the atode elevates, circulating dAo levels were declined in correlation. It should not be unwise to draw preliminary suggestion that dAo levels could alter in relationship with disease activity in dogs with atode. This alterations, mainly deduction, should reflect diasease activity, in which dogs in Group III (severe atode) represented lowest dAo values in contrasto to other classfied groups of disease.


Anturaniemi J, Zaldívar-López S, Savelkoul HFJ, Elo K, Hielm-Björkman A. 2020. The effect of atopic dermatitis and diet on the skin transcriptome in Staffordshire Bull Terriers. Front. Vet. Sci., 763.

Baylin SB, Stevens SA, Shakir KM. 1978. Association of diamine oxidase and ornithine decarboxylase with maturing cells in rapidly proliferating epithelium. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-General Subjects, 541(3); 415-419.

Belkaid Y, Hand TW. 2014. Role of the microbiota in immunity and inflammation. Cell, 157(1): 121-141.

Biegański T. 1983. Biochemical, physiological and pathophysiological aspects of intestinal diamine oxidase. Acta Physiologica Polonica, 34(1): 139-154.

Bowe WP, Logan AC. 2011. Acne vulgaris, probiotics and the gut-brain-skin axis-back to the future? Gut pathogens, 3(1); 1-11.

Caffarelli C, Cavagni G, Menzies IS, Bertolini P, Atherton DJ. 1993. Elimination diet and intestinal permeability in atopic eczema: a preliminary study. Clinical & Experimental Allergy, 23(1): 28-31.

Capurso G, Zerboni G, Signoretti M, Valente R, Stigliano S, Piciucchi M, Delle Fave G. 2012. Role of the gut barrier in acute pancreatitis. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, 46: S46-S51.

D’Agostino L, Ciacci C, Capuano G, Daniele B, D’Argenio G, Barone MV, ... & Mazzacca G. 1986. Metabolic fate of plasma diamine oxidase: evidence of isolated and perfused rat liver uptake. Digestion, 34(4): 243-250.

Deng Y, Wang H, Zhou J, Mou Y, Wang G, Xiong X. 2018. Patients with acne vulgaris have a distinct gut microbiota in comparison with healthy controls. Acta Dermato-Venereologica, 98(8): 783-790.

Favrot C, Steffan J, Seewald W, Picco F. 2010. A prospective study on the clinical features of chronic canine atopic dermatitis and its diagnosis. Veterinary Dermatology, 21(1): 23-31.

Furusawa Y, Obata Y, Fukuda S, Endo TA, Nakato G, Takahashi D, ...& Ohno H. 2013. Commensal microbe-derived butyrate induces the differentiation of colonic regulatory T cells. Nature, 504(7480): 446-450.

Geary EL, Oba PM, Applegate CC, Clark LV, Fields CJ, Swanson KS. 2022. Effects of a mildly cooked human-grade dog diet on gene expression, skin and coat health measures, and fecal microbiota of healthy adult dogs. J Anim Sci., 100(10): skac265.

Griffin CE & DeBoer DJ. 2001. The ACVD task force on canine atopic dermatitis (XIV): clinical manifestations

of canine atopic dermatitis. Veterinary immunology and immunopathology, 81(3-4): 255-269.

Gueniche A, Benyacoub J, Philippe D, Bastien P, Kusy N, Breton L, ... & Castiel-Higounenc I. 2010. Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-2116 (ST11) inhibits substance P-induced skin inflammation and accelerates skin barrier function recovery in vitro. European Journal of Dermatology, 20(6): 731-737.

Halliwell R. 2006. Revised nomenclature for veterinary allergy. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 114: 207–208.

Holzer P, Farzi A. 2014. Neuropeptides and the microbiota-gut-brain axis. Microbial endocrinology: the microbiota-gut-brain axis in health and disease. Adv Exp Med Biol, 817: 195-219.

Hunter P. 2008. We are what we eat: The link between diet, evolution and non‐genetic inheritance. EMBO Reports, 9(5); 413-415.

Jänne J, Pösö H, Raina A. 1978. Polyamines in rapid growth and cancer. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-Reviews on Cancer, 473(3-4): 241-293.

Katta R, Desai SP. 2014. Diet and dermatology: the role of dietary intervention in skin disease. The Journal of Clinical and Aesthetic Dermatology, 7(7); 46.

Kusche J, Lorenz W, Schmidt J. 1975. Oxidative deamination of biogenic amines by intestinal amine oxidases: histamine is specifically inactivated by diamine oxidase. Hoppe-Seyler’s Z Physiol Chem, 356: 1485-1496.

Livingstone KM, Givens DI, Jackson KG, Lovegrove JA. 2014. Comparative effect of dairy fatty acids on cell adhesion molecules, nitric oxide and relative gene expression in healthy and diabetic human aortic endothelial cells. Atherosclerosis, 234(1): 65-72.

Luk GD, Bayless TM, Baylin SB. 1980. Diamine oxidase (histaminase). A circulating marker for rat intestinal mucosal maturation and integrity. The Journal of Clinical Investigation, 66(1): 66-70.

Maintz L, Novak N. 2007. Histamine and histamine intolerance. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 85(5): 1185-1196.

Morales P, Fujio S, Navarrete P, Ugalde JA, Magne F, Carrasco-Pozo, C, ... & Gotteland M. 2016. Impact of dietary lipids on colonic function and microbiota: an experimental approach involving orlistat-induced fat malabsorption in human volunteers. Clinical and translational gastroenterology, 7(4): e161.

Musso G, Gambino R, Cassader M. 2010a. Gut microbiota as a regulator of energy homeostasis and ectopic fat deposition: mechanisms and implications for metabolic disorders. Current Opinion in Lipidology, 21(1): 76-83.

Musso G, Gambino R, Cassader M. 2010b. Obesity, diabetes, and gut microbiota: the hygiene hypothesis expanded? Diabetes Care, 33(10): 2277-2284.

Nakao M, Ogura Y, Satake S, Ito I, Iguchi A, Takagi K, Nabeshima T. 2002. Usefulness of soluble dietary fiber for the treatment of diarrhea during enteral nutrition in elderly patients. Nutrition, 18(1): 35-39.

Olivry T, Saridomichelakis M, Nuttall T, Bensignor E, Griffin CE, Hill PB, International Committee on Allergic Diseases of Animals (ICADA). 2014. Validation of the Canine Atopic Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index (CADESI)‐4, a simplified severity scale for assessing skin lesions of atopic dermatitis in dogs. Veterinary Dermatology, 25(2): 77-e25.

Pike MG, Heddle RJ, Boulton P, Turner MW, Atherton DJ. 1986. Increased intestinal permeability in atopic eczema. Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 86(2): 101-104.

Pincelli C, Fantini F, Massimi P, Girolomoni G, Seidenari S, Giannetti A. 1990. Neuropeptides in skin from patients with atopic dermatitis: an immunohistochemical study. British Journal of Dermatology, 122(6): 745-750.

Purchiaroni F, Tortora A, Gabrielli M, Bertucci F, Gigante G, Ianiro G, ... & Gasbarrini A. 2013. The role of intestinal microbiota and the immune system. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci, 17(3): 323-333.

Rahman SH, Ammori BJ, Holmfield J, Larvin M, McMahon MJ. 2003. Intestinal hypoperfusion contributes to gut barrier failure in severe acute pancreatitis. Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery, 7(1): 26-36.

Rosenfeldt V, Benfeldt E, Valerius NH, Pærregaard A, Michaelsen KF. 2004. Effect of probiotics on gastrointestinal symptoms and small intestinal permeability in children with atopic dermatitis. The Journal of pediatrics, 145(5): 612-616.

Singh RK, Chang HW, Yan DI, Lee KM, Ucmak D, Wong K, ... & Liao W. 2017. Influence of diet on the gut microbiome and implications for human health. Journal of Translational Medicine, 15(1): 1-17.

Shakir KM, Margolis S, Baylin SB. 1977. Localization of histaminase (diamine oxidase) in rat small intestinal mucosa: site of release by heparin. Biochemical Pharmacology, 26(24): 2343-2347.

Shmalberg J. 2017. Diets and the dermis: Nutritional considerations in dermatology. Today’s Veterinary Practice, 33-42

Tian R, Tan JT, Wang RL, Xie H, Qian YB, Yu KL. 2013. The role of intestinal mucosa oxidative stress in gut barrier dysfunction of severe acute pancreatitis. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci, 17(3): 349-355.

Ukabam SO, Mann RJ, Cooper BT. 1984. Small intestinal permeability to sugars in patients with atopic eczema. British Journal of Dermatology, 110(6): 649-652.

Zhang XP, Zhang J, Song QL, Chen HQ. 2007. Mechanism of acute pancreatitis complicated with injury of intestinal mucosa barrier. Journal of Zhejiang University Science B, 8: 888-895.




How to Cite

Ural, K. (2023). Intestinal Integrity Assessment with Diamine Oxidase Activity in Dogs with Atopic Dermatitis. International Journal of Veterinary and Animal Research (IJVAR), 6(3), 83–86. Retrieved from



Research Articles

Most read articles by the same author(s)