Comparative Toxicity Of Paraquat And 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxy Acetic Acid In Adult Artemia Franciscana

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  • Roya Rahnama
  • Zahra Tulaby Dezfuly
  • Mojtaba Alishahi


Artemia franciscana, herbicides, toxicity


Herbicides are being used widely in agriculture and aquaculture for controlling noxious weeds. Paraquat and 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid
(2,4-D) have been the most widely used herbicide during the past three decades. Toxicological properties of Paraquat are attributed to its ability
to produce reactive oxygen species such as superoxide anion that may directly or indirectly cause cell death. 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid
(2,4-D) is a broad-leaf, systemic, phenoxy herbicide used as the active ingredient in several commercially available aquatic herbicide products.
Bioassay technique has been the cornerstone of programs on environmental health and chemical safety. The application of environmental
toxicology studies on non-mammalian vertebrates is rapidly expanding. So the present study investigated the acute toxicity of Paraquat and
2,4- Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) as aquatic ecosystems pollutants on Artemia franciscana. Artemia is one of the most suitable test
organisms available for ecotoxicity testing and research and most commonly used live food in aquaculture. Acute toxicity (48 h LC50) of two
herbicides (Paraquat, 2, 4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid) was determined. A. franciscana exposed to Serial concentrations of both mentioned
herbicides. Mortalities at 12, 24, 36 and 48 hours after exposure were recorded and LC50 were calculated using Probit software. The results
obtained indicate that the acute toxicity of these herbicides is significantly different in adult A. franciscana. The lethal concentration of Paraquat
and 2,4-D were calculated 2.701, 14.475 mg/L in A. fransiscana respectively. So The LC50 of two examined herbicides was significantly different
and the mortality rate was increased by increasing exposure time. Finally, these data support the hypothesis the possible risks associated
with the presence of herbicides particularly Paraquat residues in the aquatic animals and their environment.




How to Cite

Rahnama, R., Tulaby Dezfuly, Z., & Alishahi, M. (2018). Comparative Toxicity Of Paraquat And 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxy Acetic Acid In Adult Artemia Franciscana. International Journal of Veterinary and Animal Research (IJVAR), 1(3), 40–42. Retrieved from



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