Social Network Analysis of Giardiasis Positive Calves to those of Healthy One

Abstract views: 100 / PDF downloads: 96


  • Deniz Alıç Ural Assoc. Prof. Dr.
  • Kerem Ural Prof. Dr.
  • Songul Erdogan Assoc. Prof. Dr.
  • Adnan Ayan Assoc. Prof. Dr.
  • Hasan Erdoğan Assoc. Prof. Dr.


calf, giardiasis, social networking


In the present multidisciplinary study, the researchers on a field trial performed a Social Network approach and a group of 9 calves (3 males/6 females) aged 10 to 16 weeks. A 24 hours digital camera was used for location registration (X-Y position) and interactions on each calf, both individually and collectively. Based on the simple methodology nearest neighbor matrix positive and negative associations were analyzed. The field study lasted 4 weeks and the maximum interaction day was chosen, when individual calf activity was high. To those of 9 calves solely no 2 was infected with giardiasis on the first week, whereas calves with no:2, 7, and 8 were also infected on the second week. No: 4 and 6 were also infected with a total of 5 calves on the third week. This was followed by the final 6 calves in total infected. During the observation period, both by investigators and camera records, infected calf 2 was in close contact with no: 8 (at morning observation) and a slight degree of contact with no: 3 and 4 which were detected with giardiasis on the third and fourt weeks, respectively. Due to close contact with no: 8, infection was determined on the second week, earlier than others (except no: 7). Calves with no: 1 and 5 were never infected nor determined by PCR, fecal smear, or rapid diagnostic test kits throughout the study. In conclusion, the present authors suggested that social networking might be an important predisposing factor for giardiasis infection among calves.


Alıç Ural D, Ayan A, Aysul N, Balıkçı C, Ural K. 2014. Secnidazol Treatment to Improve Milk Yield in Sheep with Giardiasis. Atatürk üniversitesi veteriner bilimleri dergisi, 9(2): 74-82.

Alıç Ural D, Erdoğan H, Toplu S, Ayan A. 2017. Oğlaklarda Giardiazis Kontrolüne Yönelik Oral Klinoptilolit Uygulaması. Kocatepe vetetrinary journal, 10(3); 158-163.

Aplin LM, Farine DR, Morand-Ferron J, Cole EF, Cockburn A, Sheldon BC. 2013. Individual personalities predict social behaviour in wild networks of great tits (Parus major). Ecology letters, 16(11), 1365-72.

Ayan A, Ural K, Aysul N, Gültekin M, Erdoğan H, Balıkçı C, Toplu S, Toros G. 2016. Giardia duodenalis ile İnfekte Buzağılarda Doğal Kist Saçılımı. Journal of advance VetBio science and techniques, 1(1); 14-19.

Ayan A, Ural K, Aysul N, Erdogan H, Alic Ural D, Gültekin M, Erdoğan S, Kucuk E. 2017. Prevalance of diagnosis of Giardia duodenalis in goats in Aydın province of Turkey. In: II International Congress on Advances in Veterinary Sciences & Technics, Skopje, Macedonia.

Ayan A, Alıç Ural D, Erdogan H, Kilinc OO, Gültekin M, Ural K. 2019. Prevalance and Molecular Characterization of Giardia duodenalis in livestock in Van, Turkey. International journal of ecosystems and ecology science, 9(2); 289-296.

Bergmüller R, Taborsky M. 2010. Animal personality due to social niche specialisation. Trends in ecology & evolution, 25(9): 504-511.

Boogert NJ, Farine DR, Spencer KA. 2014. Developmental stress predicts social network position. Biology Letters, 10(10): 1-5.

Bouissou MF, Boissy A. 2005. The social behaviour of cattle and its consequences on breeding. Productions animales 18(2): 87-99.

Burton T, Metcalfe NB. 2014. Can environmental conditions experienced in early life influence future generations?. Proceedings of the royal society B, 281: 1-8.

Chua B, Coenen E, Van Delen J, Weary D. 2002. Effects of pair versus individual housing on the behavior and performance of dairy calves. Journal of dairy science, 85(2): 360-364.

Cobb C, Obeidat B, Sellers M, Pepper-Yowell A, Ballou M. 2014. Group housing of Holstein calves in a poor indoor environment increases respiratory disease but does not influence performance or leukocyte responses. Journal of dairy science, 97(5): 3099-3109.

Çamkerten G, Erdoğan H, Alıç Ural D, Camkerten İ, Erdoğan S, Ural K. 2019. Giardia duodenalis ile Doğal Enfekte Kuzularda Serum 25 (OH) D3 Seviyeleri. Kocatepe veterinary journal, 12(1): 71-74.

de Freslon I, Martínez-López B, Belkhiria J, Strappini A, Monti G. 2019. Use of social network analysis to improve the understanding of social behaviour in dairy cattle and its impact on disease transmission. Applied animal behaviour science, 213: 47-54.

Erdoğan S, Alıç Ural D, Erdoğan H, Ayan A, Ural K, Özalp T, Günal İ. 2020. Evaluation of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin d3 levels in goat kids naturally infected with Giardia duodenalis. Journal of advance VetBio science and techniques. 5(2): 43-47.

Gulliksen SM, Lie KI, Løken T, Østerås O. 2009. Calf mortality in Norwegian dairy herds. Journal of dairy science, 92(6): 2782-2795.

Ha¨nninen L, Hepola H, Rushen J, De Passille AM, Pursiainen P, Tuure VM, Saloniemi H. 2003. Resting behaviour, growth and diarrhoea incidence rate of young dairy calves housed individually or in groups in warm or cold buildings. Acta agriculturae scandinavica, section a—animal science, 53(1): 21-28.

Holm L, Jensen MB, Jeppesen LL De Passille AM, Pursiainen P, Tuure VM, Saloniemi H. 2002. Calves’ motivation for access to two different types of social contact measured by operant conditioning. Applied animal behaviour science, 79(3): 175-194.

Houe H. 1999. Epidemiological features and economical importance of bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infections. Veterinary microbiology, 64(2–3): 89-107.

Kung L, Demarco S, Siebenson L, Joyner E, Haenlein GFW, Morris RM. 1997. An evaluation of two management systems for rearing calves fed milk replacer. Journal of dairy science, 80(10): 2529-2533.

Maatje K, Verhoeff J, Kremer WD, Cruijsen AL, van den Ingh TS. 1993. Automated feeding of milk replacer and health control of group-housed veal calves. Veterinary record, 133(11): 266-270.

Marcé C, Guatteo R, Bareille N, Fourichon C. 2010. Dairy calf housing systems across Europe and risk for calf infectious diseases. Animal, 4(09): 1588-1596.

Meaney MJ, Diorio J, Francis D, Widdowson J, LaPlante P, Caldji C, Plotsky PM. 1996. Early Environmental Regulation of Forebrain Glucocorticoid Receptor Gene Expression: Implications for Adrenocortical Responses to Stress. Developmental neuroscience, 18(1-2): 61-72.

Napolitano F, De Rosa G, Sevi A. 2008. Welfare implications of artificial rearing and early weaning in sheep. Applied animal behaviour science,110(1-2): 58-72.

Novak MA, Meyer JS, Lutz C, Tiefenbacher S. 2006. Sterotypic animal behaviour: fundamentals and applications to welfare, in: Mason G, Rushen J. (Eds.), Deprived environments: developmental insights from primatology. Wallingford, UK, pp. 153-189.

Rault JL. 2012. Friends with benefits: Social support and its relevance for farm animal welfare. Applied animal behaviour science, 136(1): 1-14.

Sachser N. 1993. The ability to arrange with conspecifics depends on social experiences around puberty. Physiology & behavior, 53(3): 539-544.

Svensson C, Lundborg K, Emanuelson U, Olsson SO. 2003. Morbidity in Swedish dairy calves from birth to 90 days of age and individual calf-level risk factors for infectious diseases. Preventive veterinary medicine, 58(3): 179-197.

Tuchscherer M, Kanitz E, Puppe B, Tuchscherer A. 2006. Early social isolation alters behavioral and physiological responses to an endotoxin challenge in piglets. Hormones and behavior, 50(5): 753-761.

Veissier I, Boissy A, Nowak R, Orgeur P, Poindron P. 1998. Ontogeny of social awareness in domestic herbivores. Applied animal behaviour science, 57(3-4): 233-245.




How to Cite

Alıç Ural, D., Ural, K., Erdogan, S. ., Ayan, A., & Erdoğan, H. (2022). Social Network Analysis of Giardiasis Positive Calves to those of Healthy One. International Journal of Veterinary and Animal Research (IJVAR), 5(3), 113–116. Retrieved from



Research Articles

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>