The Effects of Jujube Fruit (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) Added in the Mixed Feed on Growth Performance and Oxidative Stress Parameters in Quails Raised in Different Stocking Densities

Abstract views: 83 / PDF downloads: 69


  • Mehmet Çiftçi


Blood parameters, , quail, , breast muscle, , fattening performance, , malondialdehyde, , villus traits,


This study was conducted to determine the effects of the jujube fruit (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) added in the feed on growth performance, small intestine histomorphometry, oxidative stress, and carcass parameters in Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) raised in two different stocking densities. In the experiment, a total of 280 10-day-old quails were divided into 4 groups with 4 repetitions. Group control was composed of the quails consuming maize-soy based basal diet as 150 cm2 for each quail; Z group was composed of the quails consuming the basal diet containing jujube of 1% as 150 cm2 for each quail; Group SD was composed of the quails consuming maize-soy based basal diet as 100 cm2 for each quail; and ZSD group was composed of the quails consuming the basal diet containing jujube of 1% as 100 cm2 for each quail. The best live weight and daily live weight increase were determined in Group Z and the best feed consumption was determined in Group C. It was determined that the jujube fruit added into feed significantly decreased the serum and breast muscle MDA levels. The lowest villus height and the highest crypt depth of duodenum and jejunum were determined in Group SD. As a result, it was observed that the jujube fruit added in the feed of the quails raised in two different stocking densities had a positive effect on the live weight, daily live weight increase feed consumption, villus height, villus width, crypt depth, hot carcass performance and serum, breast muscle MDA levels.


Akpinar GC, Canogullari S, Baylan M, Alasahan S, Aygun A. 2015. The use of propolis extract for the storage of quail eggs. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 24(4): 427-435.

Alcicek A, Bozkurt M, Cabuk M. 2014. The effect of a mixture of herbal essential oils, an organic acid or a probiotic on broyler performance. South African Journal of Animal Science, 34(4): 217-222.

Alfaro DM, Silva AVF, Borges SA, Maiorka FA, Vargas S, Santin E. 2007. Use of Yucca schidigera exract in broiler diets and its effect on performance results obtained with different coccidiosis control methods. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 16(2): 248-254.

Anonymous. 2009. Poultry Carcass-Rules for Carcass Dissecting. Institute of Turkish Standards, TS 5890, Ankara, Turkey, ICS 67.120.10; 67.120.20.

AOAC. 2000. Official Methods of Analysis Association of AOAC International 17th ed., (AOAC International Maryland).

Ashraf S, Zaneb H, Yousaf MS, Ijaz A, Sohail MU, Muti S, Usman MM, Ijaz S, Rehman H. 2013. Effect of dietary supplementation of prebiotics and probiotics on intestinal microarchitecture in broilers reared under cyclic heat stress. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 97: 68-73.

Attia YA, Abd Al-Hamid AE, Ibrahim MS, Al-Harthia MA, Boverad F, Elnaggar AS. 2014. Productive performance, biochemical and hematological traits of broiler chickens supplemented with propolis, beepollen, and mannanoligosaccharides continuously or intermittently. Live stock Science, 164: 87-95.

Azad MAK, Kikusato M, Zulkifli I, Toyomizu M. 2013. Electrolysed reduced water decreases reactive oxygen species induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle and improves performance in broiler chicken sex posed to medium-termchronic heat stress. British Poultry Science, 54(4): 503-509.

Ball, A. 2000. The new source in poultry feding after the ban of growth promoters. Turkey V. International Feed Congress and Fair, 87-93, Antalya.

Bollengier-Lee S, Williams PEV, Whiteheat CC. 1999. Optimal dietary concentration of vit E for alleviating the effect of heat stress on egg production in laying hens. British Poultry Science, 40(1): 102-107.

Carpenter KJ, Clegg KM. 1956. The metabolizable energy of poultry feding stuffs in relation to their chemical composition. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 7(1): 45-51.

Crampton EW, Maynard LA. 1983. The relation of cellulose and lignin content to nutritive value of animal feeds. The Journal of Nutrition, 15(4): 383-395.

Cabuk M, Alcicek A, Bozkurt M, Imre N. 2003. Aromatik bitkilerden elde edilen esansiyel yağların antimikrobiyal özellikleri ve alternatif yem katkı maddesi olarak kullanım imkanı. Yem Magazin, 35: 39-41.

Cimrin T, Demirel M. 2016. Influences of rosemary essential oil on some blood parameters and small instentine microflora laying hens. Turkish Journal of Agriculture - Food Science and Technology, 4(9):769-775.

Cimrin T, Avsaroglu MD, Ivgin Tunca R, Kandir S, Ayasan T. 2019. Effects of the dietary supplementation of layer diets with natural and synthetic antioxidant additives on yolk lipid peroxidation and fatty acid composition of eggs stored at different temperatures and duration. Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science, 21(2): 001-008.

Cimrin T, Ivgin Tunca R, Avsaroglu MD, Ayasan T, Küçükersan S. 2020. Effects of an antibiotic and two phytogenic substances (cinnamaldehyde and 1,8-cineole) on yolk fatty acid profile and storage period-associated egg lipid peroxidation level. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, 49:e20190270.

Deng, W, Dong, XF, Tong, JM, Zhang Q. 2012. The probiotic Bacillus licheniformis ameliorates heat stress-induced impairment of egg production, gut morphology, and intestinal mucosal immunity in laying hens. Poultry Science, 91(3): 575-582.

Dozier WA, Thaxton JP, Branton SL, Morgan GW, Miles DM, Roush WB, Lott BD, Vizzier-Thaxton Y. 2005. Stocking density effects on growth performance and processing yields of heavy broilers. Poultry Science, 84(8): 1332-1338.

Dozier WA, Thaxton JP, Purswell JL, Olanrewaju HA, Branton SL, Roush WB. 2006. Stocking density effects on male broilers grown to 1.8 kilograms of body weight. Poultry Science, 85(2):344-351.

Erensoy K, Sarıca M, Noubandiguim M, Dur M, Aslan R. 2021. Effect of light intensity and stocking density on the performance, egg quality, and feather condition of laying hens reared in a battery cage system over the first laying period. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 53(320): 1-13.

Ertas ON, Guler T, Ciftci M, Dalkilic B. 2005. The effect of essentialoil mix derived from oregano, clove and anise on broyler performance. International Journal of Poultry Science, 4(11): 879-874.

Furlan LR, Macari M, Luquetti BC. 2004. Comoavaliarosefeitos do uso de prebióticos, probióticos e flora de exclusãocompetitiva. Simpósio Técnico de Incubação, Matrizes de Corte e Nutrição, Balneário Camboriú- Brazil; 6-28.

Gao QH, Wu CS, Wang M. 2013. The Jujube (Ziziphus Jujuba Mill.) Fruit: A review of current knowledge of fruit composition and health benefits. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 61(14): 3351-3363.

Genç M. 2020. The effects on the growth performance, some serum oxidative and nitrosative stress parameters of the stocking density in the Sprague-Dawley rats. KSÜ Tarım ve Doga Dergisi, 23(5): 1359-1365.

Goo D, Kim JH, Choi HS, Park GH, Han GP, Kil DY. 2019. Effect of stocking density and sex on growth performance, meat quality, and intestinal barrier function in broiler chickens. Poultry Science, 98(3): 1153-1160.

Goth LA. 1991. Simple method for determination of serum catalase activity and revision of reference range. Clinica Chimica Acta, 196(2-3): 143-152.

Iqbal H, Rahman A, Khanum S, Arshad M, Badar IH, Asif AR, Hayat Z, Iqbal MA. 2021. Effect of essential oil and organic acid on performance, gut health, bacterial count and serological parameters in broiler. Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science, 23(3): 001-010.

Jamroz D, Wiliczkiewicz A, Wertelecki T, Orda J, Skorupıńska J. 2005. Use of active substances of plant origin in chicken diets based on maize and locally grown cereals. British Poultry Science, 46(4): 485-493.

Jobe MC, Ncobela CN, Kunene NW, Opoku AR. 2019. Effects of Cassia abbreviata extract and stocking density on growth performance, oxidative stres and liver function of indigenous chickens. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 51(8): 2567-2574.

Karsli MA, Donmez HH. 2007. Effects of plant extract on growth performance and villi of the small bowel in heat stressed broiler. Atatürk University Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2(4): 143-148.

Kazak F, Cimrin T, Alaşahan S. 2020. Effects of ground fennel seed supplementation to diet on some blood and liver parameters in quails. ISPEC Journal of Agr. Sciences, 4(4): 1037-1052.

Khaksar V, Krimpen MV, Hashemipour H, Pilevar M. 2012. Effects of thyme essential oil on performance, some blood parameters and ıleal microflora of Japanese quail. The Journal of Poultry Science, 49(2): 106-110.

Kikusato M, Nakamura K, Mikami Y, Mujahid A, Toyomizu M. 2016. The suppressive effect of dietary coenzyme Q10 on mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production and oxidative stress in chickens exposed to heat stress. Animal Science Journal, 87(10): 1244-1251.

Lawrence RA, Burk RF. 1976. Glutathione peroxidase activity in selenium-deficient rat liver. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 71(4): 952-958.

Lee KW, Everts H, Kappert HJ, Frehner M, Losa R, Beynen AC. 2003. Effects of dietary essential oil components on growth performance, digestive enzymes and lipid metabolism in female broiler chickens. British Poultry Science, 44(3): 450-457.

Nagarajan S, Narahari D, Jayaprasad IA, Thyagarajan D. 1991. Influence of stocking densitiy and layer age on production traits and egg quality in Japanese quail. British Poultry Science, 32(2): 243-248.

Nakazawa H, Genka C, Fujıshima M. 1996. Pathological aspects of activeoxygens/freeradicals. The Japanese Journal of Physiology, 46(1): 15-32.

Ozcan C, Cimrin T, Yakar Y, Alasahan S. 2021. The effects of diatary olive cake meal on fattening performance, carcass and slaughter traits in Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix Japonica). Turkish Journal of Agriculture-Food Science and Technology, 9(6): 1030-1036.

Ozcelik M, Erisir Z, Esen A. 1999. Japon bıldırcınlarında yerleşim sıklığının ve yaşın yumurta özelliklerine etkisi. Turkish Veterinary Medical Society, 70(1-2): 55-64.

Okamoto S, Nagata S, Kobayashi S, Matsuo T. 1998. Effects of photoperiod and cage density on growth and feed conversion in large and small quail lines selected for body weight. Japanese Poultry Science, 26(3): 150-156.

Omid BR. 1997. Approach the production and processing plants. Tarahan Publisher, 1: 109-110, Tehran, Iran.

Placer ZA, Cushman LL, Johson BC. 1966. Estimation of product of lipid peroxidation (malonyldialdehyde) in biochemical systems. Analytical Biochemistry, 16(2): 359-364.

Sandikci M, Eren U, Onol AG, Kum S. 2004. The effect of heat stress and the use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae or (and) bacitracin zinc against heat stress on the intestinal mucosa in quails. Revue de MédecineVétérinaire, 155: 552-556.

Santos RR, Awati A, Roubos-Van Den Hil PJ, Tersteeg-Zijderveld MHG, Koolmees PA, Fink-Gremmels J. 2015. Quantitative histo-morphometric analysis of heat-stress-related damage in the small intestines of broiler chickens. Avian Pathology, 44(1); 19-22.

Sedlak J, Lindsay RHC. 1968. Estimation of total protein bound and non-protein sulfhydryl groups in tissue with Ellmann’sreagent. Analytical Biochemistry, 25: 192-205.

Seven I, Tatlı Seven P, Sur Arslan A, Yildiz N. 2011. The effects of dietary bee pollen on performance and some blood parameters in Japanese quails (coturnix coturnix Japonica) breeding under different stocking densities. Journal of Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Erciyes University, 8(3): 173-180.

Shanawany MM. 1998. Broiler performance under high stocking densities. British Poultry Science, 29(1): 43-52.

Shewita RS, El-Naggar K, Abd ElNaby WSH. 2019. Influence of dietary vitamin C supplementation on growth performance, blood biochemical parameters and transcript levels of heat shock proteins in high stocking density reared broiler chickens. Slovenian Veterinary Research, 56: 129-138.

Sims MD, Dawson KA, Newman KE, Spring P, Hoogell DM. 2004. Effects of dietary mannanoligosaccharide, bacitracin methylene disalicylate or both on the live performance and intestinal microbiology of Turkeys. Poultry Science, 83(7): 1148-1154.

Simsek UG, Dalkilic B, Ciftci M, Yuce A. 2009. The influences of different stocking densities on some welfare indicators, lipid peroxidation (MDA) and antioxidant enzyme activities (GSH, GSH-Px, CAT) in broiler chickens. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 8(8): 1568-1572.

Tatli Seven P, Yılmaz S, Seven I, Cerci I. H. 2009. The effect of propolis on selected blood indicators and antioxidant enzyme activities in broilers under heat stress. Acta Veterinaria Brno, 78(1): 75-83.

Uzum MH, Oral Toplu HD. 2013. Effects of stocking density and feed restriction on performance, carcass, meat quality characteristics and some stress parameters in broilers under heat stress. Revue de Médecine Vétérinaire, 164: 546-554.

Velo R, Ceular A. 2017. Effects of stocking density, light and perches on broiler growth. Animal Science Journal, 88(2): 386-393.

Wu Y, Wang Y, Yin D, Wu W. 2019. Effect of supplementation of nicotinamide and sodium butyrate on the growth performance, liver mitochondrial function and gut microbiota of broilers at high stocking density. Food and Function, 10(11): 7081-7090.

Zhang KY, Yan F, Keen CA., Waldroup PW. 2005. Evaluation of microencapsulated essential oils and organic acids in diets for broiler chickens. International Journal of Poultry Science, 4(9): 612-619.




How to Cite

Cellat, M., Alaşahan, S., Etyemez, M., Gökçek, İshak, Kutlu, T., Türkmen, M., Güvenç, M., & Çiftçi, M. (2022). The Effects of Jujube Fruit (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) Added in the Mixed Feed on Growth Performance and Oxidative Stress Parameters in Quails Raised in Different Stocking Densities. International Journal of Veterinary and Animal Research (IJVAR), 5(1), 19–26. Retrieved from



Research Articles